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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of TLR4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1 in innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide.

TLR4 and RP105 are unique members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family molecules. They are associated with small molecules called MD-2 and MD-1, respectively, to form heterodimers (TLR4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1) and function as recognition/signaling molecules of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of transfectant cell lines and gene-targeted mice revealed that both MD-2 and MD-1 are involved in the recognition of LPS as well as in the regulation of intracellular distribution and the surface expression of TLR4 and RP105, respectively. Since RP105 or MD-1-deficient mice show a reduced but not complete lack of LPS responsiveness, there may be functional associations between TLR4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1. In addition, there was an increased frequency of RP105-negative B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood in several rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting the involvement of RP105 in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity. Further analysis of the structure and function of TLR4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1 will provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology, and a chance to develop evidence-based treatments for septic shock syndrome and autoimmunity.[1]


  1. Role of TLR4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1 in innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide. Kimoto, M., Nagasawa, K., Miyake, K. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
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