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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular characterization and role of bovine upstream stimulatory factor 1 and 2 in the regulation of the prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 promoter in granulosa cells.

The transcriptional activation of the prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) gene in granulosa cells is required for ovulation. To directly study the ability of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) and USF2 to trans- activate the bovine PGHS-2 promoter in granulosa cells, USF1 or USF2 expression vectors were cotransfected with the PGHS-2/luciferase (LUC) chimeric construct, -149/-2PGHS-2.LUC. Results revealed that overexpression of USF1 or USF2 caused a marked and significant increase in basal and forskolin-inducible promoter activities (p<0.05), and these effects were dependent on the presence of a consensus E-box cis-element within the promoter fragment. Co-transfections with different N- and C-terminal truncated USF mutants led to significant reductions in promoter activation, as compared with full-length constructs (p<0.05), thus allowing identification of putative bovine USF functional domains. Overexpression of a USF2 truncated mutant lacking the first 220 residues (U2Delta1-220) acted as a dominant negative mutant and blocked endogenous and USF- stimulated PGHS-2 promoter activation. Interestingly, transfections with U2Delta1-220 blocked the forskolin-dependent induction of PGHS-2 mRNA in granulosa cells, whereas transfections with full-length USF2 increased PGHS-2 transcript levels. Immunoblot analyses confirmed overexpression of full-length and truncated USF proteins, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and supershift EMSAs established that the observed effects were dependent on specific interactions between USF proteins and the consensus E-box cis-element. Stimulation of cells with forskolin increased, whereas treatment of extracts with phosphatase decreased USF binding activities to the E-box. Thus, this study presents for the first time direct evidence for a role of USF proteins in the regulation of the PGHS-2 promoter in preovulatory granulosa cells.[1]


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