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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ovulation


Psychiatry related information on Ovulation


High impact information on Ovulation


Chemical compound and disease context of Ovulation


Biological context of Ovulation

  • Early sexual development is normal in ob/ob females; however, ovulation never follows and the mice remain prepuberal indefinitely with no occurrence of oestrus cycles [18].
  • Axillary (underarm) compounds from the same donors which were collected later in the menstrual cycle (at ovulation) had the opposite effect: they delayed the luteinizing-hormone surge of the recipients and lengthened their menstrual cycles [19].
  • Therefore, whereas the pre-ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone induces both ovulation and luteinization, the ability to suppress the action of nuclear receptors is essential for the coordinated control of ovarian function with the essential process of oocyte release dependent on the activity of the transcriptional co-repressor Nrip1 (RIP40) [20].
  • Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release [21].
  • This study demonstrates that small pulsatile doses of GnRH can activate cyclic pituitary-ovarian function in hypogonadotropin-acyclic women and induce ovulation resulting in pregnancy and live birth [22].

Anatomical context of Ovulation

  • Although antiprogestins do delay ovulation, this effect is inconsistent unless high doses are given, and under these circumstances, the antiprogestin effect is associated with unopposed estrogen action on the endometrium [23].
  • BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that increased numbers of ovulations might increase the risk of p53 gene (also known as TP53) mutation in the ovarian epithelium, thereby leading to the development of cancer [24].
  • After meiotic maturation, ovulation fails, trapping oocytes in the gonad arm where they become endomitotic. emo-1 encodes a homologue of the Sec61p gamma subunit, a protein necessary for translocation of secretory and transmembrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum of yeast and mammalian cells [25].
  • Of all adult tissues analyzed, LIF transcripts appear only in the uterus, where their level fluctuates with the estrous cycle, peaking after ovulation [26].
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to mediate events during ovulation, pregnancy, blastocyst invasion and preimplantation embryogenesis [27].

Associations of Ovulation with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ovulation

  • We demonstrate herein that the targeted disruption of COX-2, but not COX-1, in mice produces multiple failures in female reproductive processes that include ovulation, fertilization, implantation, and decidualization [33].
  • Here we show that the co-repressor nuclear-receptor-interacting protein 1 (Nrip1; encoded by the gene Nrip1) is essential for ovulation [20].
  • PGs made by COX-2 are also important in ovulation and in the birth process [34].
  • We find that sem-5 also has a negative function in let-23-mediated ovulation and suggest that this negative function is mediated by the recruitment of inhibitors such as ARK-1 [35].
  • This finding is in line with the assumption that estrogen mediated ovulation inhibition and stimulation of uterine growth are mediated by ERalpha but not by ERbeta[36]

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ovulation


  1. Mutations in an oocyte-derived growth factor gene (BMP15) cause increased ovulation rate and infertility in a dosage-sensitive manner. Galloway, S.M., McNatty, K.P., Cambridge, L.M., Laitinen, M.P., Juengel, J.L., Jokiranta, T.S., McLaren, R.J., Luiro, K., Dodds, K.G., Montgomery, G.W., Beattie, A.E., Davis, G.H., Ritvos, O. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Urine estrogens, frequency of ovulation, and breast cancer risk: case-control study in premenopausal women. MacMahon, B., Cole, P., Brown, J.B., Paffenbarger, R., Trichopoulos, D., Yen, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Medial preoptic sexual dimorphisms in the guinea pig. I. An investigation of their hormonal dependence. Byne, W., Bleier, R. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Case-control study of gestational choriocarcinoma. Buckley, J.D., Henderson, B.E., Morrow, C.P., Hammond, C.B., Kohorn, E.I., Austin, D.F. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence for abnormal granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Coffler, M.S., Patel, K., Dahan, M.H., Malcom, P.J., Kawashima, T., Deutsch, R., Chang, R.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Catecholamine involvement in preovulatory LH release: reassessment of the role of epinephrine. Kalra, S.P. Neuroendocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas (Lama glama). Adam, C.L., Moir, C.E., Shiach, P. Vet. Rec. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of prolonged luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy on follicular maturation, ovulation and corpus luteum function in amenorrhoeic women with anorexia nervosa. Nillius, S.J., Wide, L. Ups. J. Med. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Mechanisms controlling the function and life span of the corpus luteum. Niswender, G.D., Juengel, J.L., Silva, P.J., Rollyson, M.K., McIntush, E.W. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Reducing the risk of high-order multiple pregnancy after ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. Gleicher, N., Oleske, D.M., Tur-Kaspa, I., Vidali, A., Karande, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Reamer, P., Gunn, R.D., Allan, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Evans, W.S., Pasquali, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog suppression renders polycystic ovarian disease patients more susceptible to ovulation induction with pulsatile GnRH. Filicori, M., Campaniello, E., Michelacci, L., Pareschi, A., Ferrari, P., Bolelli, G., Flamigni, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Ovarian refractoriness to gonadotropins in cases of inappropriate lactation: restoration of ovarian function with bromocryptine. Mroueh, A.M., Siler-Khodr, T.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Transient hyperprolactinemia: a correctable cause of idiopathic female infertility. Ben-David, M., Schenker, J.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. Azziz, R., Sanchez, L.A., Knochenhauer, E.S., Moran, C., Lazenby, J., Stephens, K.C., Taylor, K., Boots, L.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone on insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, and ovulatory dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Brettenthaler, N., De Geyter, C., Huber, P.R., Keller, U. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Correction of the sterility defect in homozygous obese female mice by treatment with the human recombinant leptin. Chehab, F.F., Lim, M.E., Lu, R. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Stern, K., McClintock, M.K. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. The nuclear receptor co-repressor nrip1 (RIP140) is essential for female fertility. White, R., Leonardsson, G., Rosewell, I., Ann Jacobs, M., Milligan, S., Parker, M. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Sex differences in serotonin 1 receptor binding in rat brain. Fischette, C.T., Biegon, A., McEwen, B.S. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Pulsatile administration of low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Ovulation and pregnancy in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. Miller, D.S., Reid, R.R., Cetel, N.S., Rebar, R.W., Yen, S.S. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Antiprogestins: mechanism of action and contraceptive potential. Spitz, I.M., Croxatto, H.B., Robbins, A. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Relationship between number of ovulatory cycles and accumulation of mutant p53 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Webb, P.M., Green, A., Cummings, M.C., Purdie, D.M., Walsh, M.D., Chenevix-Trench, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. emo-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans Sec61p gamma homologue, is required for oocyte development and ovulation. Iwasaki, K., McCarter, J., Francis, R., Schedl, T. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Leukemia inhibitory factor is expressed by the preimplantation uterus and selectively blocks primitive ectoderm formation in vitro. Shen, M.M., Leder, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Nitric oxide modulates murine yolk sac vasculogenesis and rescues glucose induced vasculopathy. Nath, A.K., Enciso, J., Kuniyasu, M., Hao, X.Y., Madri, J.A., Pinter, E. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Induction of ovulation and fertility in amenorrheic women by pulsatile low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Hurley, D.M., Brian, R., Outch, K., Stockdale, J., Fry, A., Hackman, C., Clarke, I., Burger, H.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Increasing ovulation rate in sheep by active immunisation against an ovarian steroid androstenedione. Scaramuzzi, R.J., Davidson, W.G., Van Look, P.F. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Blockage of ovulation by an angiotensin antagonist. Pellicer, A., Palumbo, A., DeCherney, A.H., Naftolin, F. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Impact of progestin and estrogen potency in oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk. Schildkraut, J.M., Calingaert, B., Marchbanks, P.A., Moorman, P.G., Rodriguez, G.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. In-vitro fertilisation of oocytes from women with serum antisperm antibodies. Yovich, J.L., Stanger, J.D., Kay, D., Boettcher, B. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Multiple female reproductive failures in cyclooxygenase 2-deficient mice. Lim, H., Paria, B.C., Das, S.K., Dinchuk, J.E., Langenbach, R., Trzaskos, J.M., Dey, S.K. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Vane, J.R., Bakhle, Y.S., Botting, R.M. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. ARK-1 inhibits EGFR signaling in C. elegans. Hopper, N.A., Lee, J., Sternberg, P.W. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Impact of isotype-selective estrogen receptor agonists on ovarian function. Hegele-Hartung, C., Siebel, P., Peters, O., Kosemund, D., Müller, G., Hillisch, A., Walter, A., Kraetzschmar, J., Fritzemeier, K.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. Guballa, N., Sammaritano, L., Schwartzman, S., Buyon, J., Lockshin, M.D. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Molecular cloning and induction of bovine prostaglandin E synthase by gonadotropins in ovarian follicles prior to ovulation in vivo. Filion, F., Bouchard, N., Goff, A.K., Lussier, J.G., Sirois, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Heat shock protein-70 induction mediates luteal regression in the rat. Khanna, A., Aten, R.F., Behrman, H.R. Mol. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Stimulation of ovarian follicular maturation with pure follicle-stimulating hormone in women with gonadotropin deficiency. Couzinet, B., Lestrat, N., Brailly, S., Forest, M., Schaison, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Suppression of postovulatory gonadotropin levels does not affect corpus luteum function in rhesus monkeys. Balmaceda, J.P., Borghi, M.R., Coy, D.H., Schally, A.V., Asch, R.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
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