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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transcription factor Nrf2 regulates inflammation by mediating the effect of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin j(2).

Activated macrophages express high levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor that positively regulates the gene expression of antioxidant and detoxication enzymes. In this study, we examined how Nrf2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory process. As a model system of acute inflammation, we administered carrageenan to induce pleurisy and found that in Nrf2-deficient mice, tissue invasion by neutrophils persisted during inflammation and the recruitment of macrophages was delayed. Using an antibody against 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), it was observed that macrophages from pleural lavage accumulate 15d-PGJ(2). We show that in mouse peritoneal macrophages 15d-PGJ(2) can activate Nrf2 by forming adducts with Keap1, resulting in an Nrf2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase 1 and peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) gene expression. Administration of the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor NS-398 to mice with carrageenan-induced pleurisy caused persistence of neutrophil recruitment and, in macrophages, attenuated the 15d-PGJ(2) accumulation and PrxI expression. Administration of 15d-PGJ(2) into the pleural space of NS-398-treated wild-type mice largely counteracted both the decrease in PrxI and persistence of neutrophil recruitment. In contrast, these changes did not occur in the Nrf2-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 regulates the inflammation process downstream of 15d-PGJ(2) by orchestrating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating the gene expression within those cells.[1]


  1. Transcription factor Nrf2 regulates inflammation by mediating the effect of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin j(2). Itoh, K., Mochizuki, M., Ishii, Y., Ishii, T., Shibata, T., Kawamoto, Y., Kelly, V., Sekizawa, K., Uchida, K., Yamamoto, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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