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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Local application of neuropathic organophosphorus compounds to hen sciatic nerve: inhibition of neuropathy target esterase and peripheral neurological impairments.

Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP), mipafox, cresylsaligenyl phosphate, and phenylsaligenyl phosphate were applied to a 1.5-cm segment of the common trunk of the sciatic nerve in adult hens. At doses of 18-182 micrograms mipafox and 9-110 micrograms DFP, inhibition of neuropathy target esterase ( NTE) for the treated segment was over 80%, whereas for the adjacent distal and proximal segments inhibition was under 40%, 15 min after application. NTE was not affected in the peripheral distal terminations arising from the common sciatic nerve (peroneal branches), contralateral sciatic nerve, brain, and spinal cord. A 24-hr study suggested a displacement of the activity-free region toward more distal segments of the nerve. All animals treated with 55 and 110 micrograms DFP or 110 micrograms mipafox lost a characteristic avian retraction reflex in the treated leg 9-15 days after dosing, suggesting peripheral neurological alterations. Only hens dosed at the maximum dose in both extremities presented alterations in motility (Grade 1 or 2 on a 0-8 scale), suggesting no significant central nervous system alterations. Electron microscopy of peroneal branches showed axon swelling and accumulation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum similar to animals dosed systemically (s.c.) with 1-2 mg/kg DFP. The branches also contained granular and electron-dense materials, as well as some intraaxonal and intramyelinic vacuolization. Clinical effects were not observed in animals protected with a 30 mg/kg (s.c.) dose of phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. It is concluded that the peripheral neurological effects of local dosing correlate with the specific modification of NTE in a segment of sciatic nerve and that the axon is a more likely target than the perikaryon or nerve terminal in the triggering mechanism of this axonopathy.[1]


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