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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Spinal Cord

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Disease relevance of Spinal Cord


Psychiatry related information on Spinal Cord

  • Oral sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for erectile dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury [6].
  • It was shown that the descending noradrenergic systems were facilitatory to the motor system, and that alpha 1-antagonistic action at the spinal cord and alpha 2-agonistic action at the brainstem inhibited spinal motor activity by blocking spinal alpha 1-receptors and by reducing the release of noradrenaline in the spinal cord, respectively [7].
  • The decrease in tail-flick latency suggests that pain threshold was decreased, and the dramatic behavioural effects seen at high doses suggest that an excess of substance P in the spinal cord is capable of producing a painful sensation [8].
  • Site of injury-directed induction of heme oxygenase-1 and -2 in experimental spinal cord injury: differential functions in neuronal defense mechanisms [9]?
  • BACKGROUND: A priori hypothesis: vaginal and/or cervical self-stimulation will not produce perceptual responses in women with "complete" spinal cord injury (SCI) at or above the highest level of entry of the hypogastric nerves (T10-12) but will produce perceptual responses if SCI is below T-10 [10].

High impact information on Spinal Cord


Chemical compound and disease context of Spinal Cord


Biological context of Spinal Cord


Anatomical context of Spinal Cord


Associations of Spinal Cord with chemical compounds

  • We conclude that in patients with acute spinal-cord injury, treatment with methylprednisolone in the dose used in this study improves neurologic recovery when the medication is given in the first eight hours [30].
  • Some forms of dystonia respond to the intrathecal administration of baclofen, a specific gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor (type B) agonist that inhibits sensory input to the neurons of the spinal cord [31].
  • A sonic hedgehog-independent, retinoid-activated pathway of neurogenesis in the ventral spinal cord [32].
  • These results show that netrin-1 is a chemotropic factor expressed by floor plate cells and suggest that the two netrin proteins guide commissural axons in the developing spinal cord [33].
  • Moreover, studies using extracellular single-cell recording techniques indicate that serotonin in small amounts facilitates synaptically or glutamate-induced excitation of mammalian motoneurones in the facial nucleus and spinal cord [34].

Gene context of Spinal Cord

  • It is expressed principally in the brain and spinal cord, and is similar in overall structure to the Dp116 dystrophin isoform [35].
  • ALS2 is expressed in various tissues and cells, including neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord, and encodes a protein containing multiple domains that have homology to RanGEF as well as RhoGEF [36].
  • Substance P is synthesized by small-diameter sensory 'pain' fibres, and release of the peptide into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord following intense peripheral stimulation promotes central hyperexcitability and increased sensitivity to pain [37].
  • In adult rats, injection of NT-3 (but not BDNF) into the lesioned spinal cord increases the regenerative sprouting of the transected CST [38].
  • Finally, we show that netrin-1-dependent outgrowth of dorsal spinal cord axons directly involves A2b [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spinal Cord


  1. Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity. Penn, R.D., Savoy, S.M., Corcos, D., Latash, M., Gottlieb, G., Parke, B., Kroin, J.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter causes motor neuron degeneration. Oosthuyse, B., Moons, L., Storkebaum, E., Beck, H., Nuyens, D., Brusselmans, K., Van Dorpe, J., Hellings, P., Gorselink, M., Heymans, S., Theilmeier, G., Dewerchin, M., Laudenbach, V., Vermylen, P., Raat, H., Acker, T., Vleminckx, V., Van Den Bosch, L., Cashman, N., Fujisawa, H., Drost, M.R., Sciot, R., Bruyninckx, F., Hicklin, D.J., Ince, C., Gressens, P., Lupu, F., Plate, K.H., Robberecht, W., Herbert, J.M., Collen, D., Carmeliet, P. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Glutamic acid in spinal-cord gray matter in Friedreich's ataxia. Butterworth, R.F., Giguère, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Transgenic mice expressing a human poliovirus receptor: a new model for poliomyelitis. Ren, R.B., Costantini, F., Gorgacz, E.J., Lee, J.J., Racaniello, V.R. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of hyperalgesia by ablation of lamina I spinal neurons expressing the substance P receptor. Mantyh, P.W., Rogers, S.D., Honore, P., Allen, B.J., Ghilardi, J.R., Li, J., Daughters, R.S., Lappi, D.A., Wiley, R.G., Simone, D.A. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Randomized trial of sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in spinal cord injury. Sildenafil Study Group. Giuliano, F., Hultling, C., El Masry, W.S., Smith, M.D., Osterloh, I.H., Orr, M., Maytom, M. Ann. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Pharmacology of descending noradrenergic systems in relation to motor function. Ono, H., Fukuda, H. Pharmacol. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Substance P reduces tail-flick latency: implications for chronic pain syndromes. Yasphal, K., Wright, D.M., Henry, J.L. Pain (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Site of injury-directed induction of heme oxygenase-1 and -2 in experimental spinal cord injury: differential functions in neuronal defense mechanisms? Panahian, N., Maines, M.D. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. 'Complete' spinal cord injury does not block perceptual responses to genital self-stimulation in women. Komisaruk, B.R., Gerdes, C.A., Whipple, B. Arch. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction with vesicle luminal protachykinin regulates surface expression of delta-opioid receptors and opioid analgesia. Guan, J.S., Xu, Z.Z., Gao, H., He, S.Q., Ma, G.Q., Sun, T., Wang, L.H., Zhang, Z.N., Lena, I., Kitchen, I., Elde, R., Zimmer, A., He, C., Pei, G., Bao, L., Zhang, X. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The morphogen sonic hedgehog is an axonal chemoattractant that collaborates with netrin-1 in midline axon guidance. Charron, F., Stein, E., Jeong, J., McMahon, A.P., Tessier-Lavigne, M. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 controls positioning of oligodendrocyte precursors in developing spinal cord by arresting their migration. Tsai, H.H., Frost, E., To, V., Robinson, S., Ffrench-Constant, C., Geertman, R., Ransohoff, R.M., Miller, R.H. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The bHLH transcription factors OLIG2 and OLIG1 couple neuronal and glial subtype specification. Zhou, Q., Anderson, D.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. No DREAM, No pain. Closing the spinal gate. Costigan, M., Woolf, C.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Fixed- vs adjusted-dose heparin in the prophylaxis of thromboembolism in spinal cord injury. Green, D., Lee, M.Y., Ito, V.Y., Cohn, T., Press, J., Filbrandt, P.R., VandenBerg, W.C., Yarkony, G.M., Meyer, P.R. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice. Cross, A.H., Misko, T.P., Lin, R.F., Hickey, W.F., Trotter, J.L., Tilton, R.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Similarities in development of substance P and somatostatin in peripheral sensory neurons: effects of capsaicin and nerve growth factor. Kessler, J.A., Black, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Acute spinal cord ischemia: prevention of paraplegia with verapamil. Gelbfish, J.S., Phillips, T., Rose, D.M., Wait, R., Cunningham, J.N. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. The neuroexcitotoxic amino acids glutamate and aspartate are altered in the spinal cord and brain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Plaitakis, A., Constantakakis, E., Smith, J. Ann. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Activation of ATP P2X receptors elicits glutamate release from sensory neuron synapses. Gu, J.G., MacDermott, A.B. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Stimulation of connective tissue cell growth by substance P and substance K. Nilsson, J., von Euler, A.M., Dalsgaard, C.J. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular characterization of a functional cDNA encoding the rat substance P receptor. Hershey, A.D., Krause, J.E. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. The influence of the proinflammatory cytokine, osteopontin, on autoimmune demyelinating disease. Chabas, D., Baranzini, S.E., Mitchell, D., Bernard, C.C., Rittling, S.R., Denhardt, D.T., Sobel, R.A., Lock, C., Karpuj, M., Pedotti, R., Heller, R., Oksenberg, J.R., Steinman, L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Tlx3 and Tlx1 are post-mitotic selector genes determining glutamatergic over GABAergic cell fates. Cheng, L., Arata, A., Mizuguchi, R., Qian, Y., Karunaratne, A., Gray, P.A., Arata, S., Shirasawa, S., Bouchard, M., Luo, P., Chen, C.L., Busslinger, M., Goulding, M., Onimaru, H., Ma, Q. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Pax6 controls progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in response to graded Shh signaling. Ericson, J., Rashbass, P., Schedl, A., Brenner-Morton, S., Kawakami, A., van Heyningen, V., Jessell, T.M., Briscoe, J. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Mutation of a new sodium channel gene, Scn8a, in the mouse mutant 'motor endplate disease'. Burgess, D.L., Kohrman, D.C., Galt, J., Plummer, N.W., Jones, J.M., Spear, B., Meisler, M.H. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Requirement of nerve growth factor for development of substance P-containing sensory neurones. Otten, U., Goedert, M., Mayer, N., Lembeck, F. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Regional changes of ciliary neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in post mortem spinal cord and cerebral cortex from patients with motor disease. Anand, P., Parrett, A., Martin, J., Zeman, S., Foley, P., Swash, M., Leigh, P.N., Cedarbaum, J.M., Lindsay, R.M., Williams-Chestnut, R.E. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. Bracken, M.B., Shepard, M.J., Collins, W.F., Holford, T.R., Young, W., Baskin, D.S., Eisenberg, H.M., Flamm, E., Leo-Summers, L., Maroon, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of dystonia in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. van Hilten, B.J., van de Beek, W.J., Hoff, J.I., Voormolen, J.H., Delhaas, E.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. A sonic hedgehog-independent, retinoid-activated pathway of neurogenesis in the ventral spinal cord. Pierani, A., Brenner-Morton, S., Chiang, C., Jessell, T.M. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Netrins are diffusible chemotropic factors for commissural axons in the embryonic spinal cord. Kennedy, T.E., Serafini, T., de la Torre, J.R., Tessier-Lavigne, M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Intracellular studies showing modulation of facial motoneurone excitability by serotonin. VanderMaelen, C.P., Aghajanian, G.K. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  35. Characterization of DRP2, a novel human dystrophin homologue. Roberts, R.G., Freeman, T.C., Kendall, E., Vetrie, D.L., Dixon, A.K., Shaw-Smith, C., Bone, Q., Bobrow, M. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. A gene encoding a putative GTPase regulator is mutated in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2. Hadano, S., Hand, C.K., Osuga, H., Yanagisawa, Y., Otomo, A., Devon, R.S., Miyamoto, N., Showguchi-Miyata, J., Okada, Y., Singaraja, R., Figlewicz, D.A., Kwiatkowski, T., Hosler, B.A., Sagie, T., Skaug, J., Nasir, J., Brown, R.H., Scherer, S.W., Rouleau, G.A., Hayden, M.R., Ikeda, J.E. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Altered nociception, analgesia and aggression in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. De Felipe, C., Herrero, J.F., O'Brien, J.A., Palmer, J.A., Doyle, C.A., Smith, A.J., Laird, J.M., Belmonte, C., Cervero, F., Hunt, S.P. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Neurotrophin-3 enhances sprouting of corticospinal tract during development and after adult spinal cord lesion. Schnell, L., Schneider, R., Kolbeck, R., Barde, Y.A., Schwab, M.E. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth and cAMP production requires interaction with adenosine A2b receptor. Corset, V., Nguyen-Ba-Charvet, K.T., Forcet, C., Moyse, E., Chédotal, A., Mehlen, P. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Chlordiazepoxide selectively augments GABA action in spinal cord cell cultures. Choh, D.W., Farb, D.H., Fischbach, G.D. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  41. Restoration of dysgenic muscle contraction and calcium channel function by co-culture with normal spinal cord neurons. Rieger, F., Bournaud, R., Shimahara, T., Garcia, L., Pinçon-Raymond, M., Romey, G., Lazdunski, M. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. Dual requirement for gephyrin in glycine receptor clustering and molybdoenzyme activity. Feng, G., Tintrup, H., Kirsch, J., Nichol, M.C., Kuhse, J., Betz, H., Sanes, J.R. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  43. Characterization of a murine homeo box gene, Hox-2.6, related to the Drosophila Deformed gene. Graham, A., Papalopulu, N., Lorimer, J., McVey, J.H., Tuddenham, E.G., Krumlauf, R. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
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