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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Developmental regulation of catecholamine levels during sea urchin embryo morphogenesis.

Results of a number of pharmacological studies suggest that catecholamines play a regulatory role in cleavage, morphogenesis and cell differentiation during early animal embryonic development. Few studies, however, have actually assayed for levels of catecholamines in these early embryos by methods that are both sensitive and specific. In this investigation the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine and their precursor, dopa and metabolites were determined in eight different embryonic stages of the sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus from hatched blastula to late pluteus larva, using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Levels of each of the catecholamines exhibited unique developmental profiles and are consistent with a role for epinephrine in blastula and early gastrula embryos and for norepinephrine in gastrulation. Changes in levels of catecholamine precursor and metabolites suggest a changing pattern of synthetic and metabolic enzyme activity, which can, for the most part, explain the fluctuations in catecholamine levels during development from blastula to the pluteus larva stage.[1]


  1. Developmental regulation of catecholamine levels during sea urchin embryo morphogenesis. Anitole-Misleh, K.G., Brown, K.M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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