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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nitric oxide inhibitable isoforms of adenylate cyclase mediate epithelial secretory dysfunction following exposure to ionising radiation.

BACKGROUND: Hyporesponsiveness of the intestinal epithelium to secretagogues occurs in different models of intestinal injury, including radiation enteropathy, and in human disease. While this impairment of barrier function has been linked to increased inducible nitric oxide synthase ( iNOS) activity, the cellular target of NO in this phenomenon is not known, although recent studies suggest that some isoforms of adenylate cyclase are inhibited by NO. AIMS: To determine adenylate cyclase isoform distribution in colonic epithelial cells and, in particular, the physiological significance of NO inhibitable adenylate cyclase isoforms 5 and 6 in radiation induced epithelial secretory dysfunction. METHODS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry were used to examine adenylate cyclase expression. The responsiveness of mouse colon to secretagogues 72 hours post-15 Gy gamma radiation or following in vitro exposure to NO donors was measured in Ussing chambers. Also, cAMP, cGMP, and ATP levels were measured. RESULTS: RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry showed that adenylate cyclase 5 was expressed in mouse colon, and isoforms 5 and 6 were expressed in human biopsies and intestinal epithelium. Pharmacological studies showed that these isoforms are functionally important in chloride secretion. NO mediated hyporesponsiveness to secretagogues is primarily a result of decreased adenylate cyclase activity, and not G(i) activation or decreased cellular ATP levels. CONCLUSIONS: NO inhibitable isoforms of adenylate cyclase are expressed in mouse and human secretory colonic epithelia, and appear to be the target of radiation induced NO to reduce the responsiveness to cAMP dependent secretagogues.[1]


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