The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Haemophilus influenzae type b-outer membrane protein complex glycoconjugate vaccine induces cytokine production by engaging human toll-like receptor 2 ( TLR2) and requires the presence of TLR2 for optimal immunogenicity.

Conjugate vaccines consisting of the capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) covalently linked to carrier proteins, unlike pure PS, are immunogenic in infants and have significantly reduced Hib infections in the United States, but require multiple doses to induce protective anti-PS Ab titers. Hib-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) conjugate vaccine, however, elicits protective anti-PS Ab titers after one dose. We found that OMPC and Hib-OMPC engaged human Toll-like receptor 2 ( TLR2) expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, inducing IL-8 production, and engaged mouse TLR2 on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, inducing TNF release. Hib conjugated to the carrier proteins CRM(197) and tetanus toxoid did not engage TLR2 on HEK or dendritic cells. Engagement of TLR2 by Hib-OMPC was MyD88 dependent, as Hib-OMPC-induced TNF production was ablated in MyD88 knockout (KO) mice. Hib-OMPC was significantly less immunogenic in TLR2 KO mice, inducing lower Hib PS IgG and IgM titers compared with those in wild-type mice. Splenocytes from OMPC-immunized TLR2 KO mice also produced significantly less IL-6 and TNF-alpha than those from wild-type mice. Hib-OMPC is unique among glycoconjugate vaccines by engaging TLR2, and the ability of Hib-OMPC to elicit protective levels of Abs after one dose may be related to TLR2- mediated induction and regulation of cytokines produced by T cells and macrophages in addition to the peptide/ MHC II-dependent recruitment of T cell help commonly afforded by carrier proteins. TLR2 engagement by an adjuvant or carrier protein may be a useful strategy for augmentation of the anti-PS Ab response induced by glycoconjugate vaccines.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities