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MeSH Review

United States

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Disease relevance of United States


Psychiatry related information on United States


High impact information on United States

  • Infliximab (a mAB), and etanercept (a sTNF-R-Fc fusion protein) have been approved by regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe for treating RA, and they represent a significant new addition to available therapeutic options [11].
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. At the time of diagnosis, most patients are older than 65 years and have Stage III or IV disease [12].
  • Nicotine is a powerfully addictive substance, and the tobacco industry spends billions annually promoting it in the United States. It is therefore important for clinicians to understand why people smoke, to address smoking in patients of all ages, and to lobby for health-preserving tobacco control policies at the community level [13].
  • Data from 53,856 patients with thyroid cancer accessioned to the NCDB from 1985 to 1995 document extremely high survival rates for patients in the United States with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer [14].
  • There were significant decreases in multidrug resistance in France and the United States. In Estonia, the prevalence in all cases increased from 11.7 percent in 1994 to 18.1 percent in 1998 (P<0.001) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of United States


Biological context of United States


Anatomical context of United States

  • Analysis of samples collected within the United States after the Chinese atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of 26 September and 17 November 1976 indicates that the radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine-131 in milk was predominant [26].
  • We studied eight unrelated families of varied ethnic origins across the United States. DNA from each individual was digested with restriction enzymes TaqI or BamHI and analyzed by Southern blots followed by hybridization with probes T cell receptor alpha (TCRA), myosin heavy chain beta, D14S25, and D14S26 [27].
  • A workshop on childhood atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and the Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation of the United States, was held on January 29, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland. Drs [28].
  • Ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase insensitivity in detecting tuberculous peritonitis in the United States [29].
  • We examined trends in the rate of ECE for cancers detected by PSA screening in 731 RP specimens between 1987 and 1997, when screening became routine urologic practice in the United States. METHODS: The rates of ECE were examined in 311 prostates with nonpalpable (stage T1c) disease and 420 with palpable but clinically localized (stage T2) disease [30].

Associations of United States with chemical compounds

  • The increasingly widespread use of cocaine in the United States has been accompanied and perhaps exacerbated by the misconception that the drug is not associated with serious medical complications [31].
  • CETP deficiency was not found in six unrelated subjects with elevated HDL cholesterol levels who were from different parts of the United States. CONCLUSIONS [32].
  • The responding neonatologists' concerns about the current Baby Doe regulations were similar to those expressed by the United States Supreme Court in rejecting an earlier set of Baby Doe regulations [33].
  • Mifepristone (RU 486) in the United States. What does the future hold [34]?
  • As compared to isolates studied in 1970-1971, recent United States isolates appeared equally sensitive to penicillin G and more sensitive to tetracycline [35].

Gene context of United States


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of United States


  1. Regional variation across the United States in the management of acute myocardial infarction. GUSTO-1 Investigators. Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries. Pilote, L., Califf, R.M., Sapp, S., Miller, D.P., Mark, D.B., Weaver, W.D., Gore, J.M., Armstrong, P.W., Ohman, E.M., Topol, E.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. Dienstag, J.L., Schiff, E.R., Wright, T.L., Perrillo, R.P., Hann, H.W., Goodman, Z., Crowther, L., Condreay, L.D., Woessner, M., Rubin, M., Brown, N.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. National gonorrhea therapy monitoring study: treatment results. Kaufman, R.E., Johnson, R.E., Jaffe, H.W., Thornsberry, C., Reynolds, G.H., Wiesner, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy associated with clozapine use in the United States. La Grenade, L., Graham, D., Trontell, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacy of metformin in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Multicenter Metformin Study Group. DeFronzo, R.A., Goodman, A.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Cardiomyopathy associated with the smoking of crystal methamphetamine. Hong, R., Matsuyama, E., Nur, K. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. Whittemore, A.S., Kolonel, L.N., Wu, A.H., John, E.M., Gallagher, R.P., Howe, G.R., Burch, J.D., Hankin, J., Dreon, D.M., West, D.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Laetrile: end play around the FDA. A review of legal developments. Rosen, G.M., Shorr, R.I. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. No association between the NOS3 codon 298 polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in a sample from the United States. Crawford, F., Freeman, M., Abdullah, L., Schinka, J., Gold, M., Duara, R., Mullan, M. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Treating tobacco dependence: state of the science and new directions. Lerman, C., Patterson, F., Berrettini, W. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Anti-TNF alpha therapy of rheumatoid arthritis: what have we learned? Feldmann, M., Maini, R.N. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Management of lung cancer in older adults. Hurria, A., Kris, M.G. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents. Sargent, J.D., DiFranza, J.R. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Perspective: National Cancer Institute summary report about estimated exposures and thyroid doses received from iodine 131 in fallout after Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. Hundahl, S.A. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Global trends in resistance to antituberculosis drugs. World Health Organization-International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. Espinal, M.A., Laszlo, A., Simonsen, L., Boulahbal, F., Kim, S.J., Reniero, A., Hoffner, S., Rieder, H.L., Binkin, N., Dye, C., Williams, R., Raviglione, M.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Antioxidants enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer: a p53-independent induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 via C/EBPbeta. Chinery, R., Brockman, J.A., Peeler, M.O., Shyr, Y., Beauchamp, R.D., Coffey, R.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Cardiac actions of antihistamines. Woosley, R.L. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Hormone replacement therapy and dry eye syndrome. Schaumberg, D.A., Buring, J.E., Sullivan, D.A., Dana, M.R. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1978 through 1981. The National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance Study. Schlech, W.F., Ward, J.I., Band, J.D., Hightower, A., Fraser, D.W., Broome, C.V. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Vasculopathic hepatotoxicity associated with E-Ferol syndrome in low-birth-weight infants. Bove, K.E., Kosmetatos, N., Wedig, K.E., Frank, D.J., Whitlatch, S., Saldivar, V., Haas, J., Bodenstein, C., Balistreri, W.F. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Sensitivity to triazolam in the elderly. Greenblatt, D.J., Harmatz, J.S., Shapiro, L., Engelhardt, N., Gouthro, T.A., Shader, R.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Midtrimester abortion. Intra-amniotic instillation of hyperosmolar urea and prostaglandin F2 alpha v dilatation and evacuation. Kafrissen, M.E., Schulz, K.F., Grimes, D.A., Cates, W. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Epidemiology and natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis in a US community. Kim, W.R., Lindor, K.D., Locke, G.R., Therneau, T.M., Homburger, H.A., Batts, K.P., Yawn, B.P., Petz, J.L., Melton, L.J., Dickson, E.R. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Manpower in gastroenterology in the United States: a position paper of the Training and Education Committee of the AGA. Modlin, I.M., Sabesin, S.M., Shape, W.J., Rubin, W. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Misoprostol reduces serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Silverstein, F.E., Graham, D.Y., Senior, J.R., Davies, H.W., Struthers, B.J., Bittman, R.M., Geis, G.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. United States population dose estimates for iodine-131 in the thyroid after the Chinese atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Smith, J.M., Broadway, J.A., Strong, A.B. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Localization of gene for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to chromosome 14q1 in a diverse US population. Hejtmancik, J.F., Brink, P.A., Towbin, J., Hill, R., Brink, L., Tapscott, T., Trakhtenbroit, A., Roberts, R. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of INI1 and the SWI/SNF complex in the development of rhabdoid tumors: meeting summary from the workshop on childhood atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. Biegel, J.A., Kalpana, G., Knudsen, E.S., Packer, R.J., Roberts, C.W., Thiele, C.J., Weissman, B., Smith, M. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase insensitivity in detecting tuberculous peritonitis in the United States. Hillebrand, D.J., Runyon, B.A., Yasmineh, W.G., Rynders, G.P. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Declining rates of extracapsular extension after radical prostatectomy: evidence for continued stage migration. Jhaveri, F.M., Klein, E.A., Kupelian, P.A., Zippe, C., Levin, H.S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Acute cardiac events temporally related to cocaine abuse. Isner, J.M., Estes, N.A., Thompson, P.D., Costanzo-Nordin, M.R., Subramanian, R., Miller, G., Katsas, G., Sweeney, K., Sturner, W.Q. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased high-density lipoprotein levels caused by a common cholesteryl-ester transfer protein gene mutation. Inazu, A., Brown, M.L., Hesler, C.B., Agellon, L.B., Koizumi, J., Takata, K., Maruhama, Y., Mabuchi, H., Tall, A.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Neonatologists judge the "Baby Doe" regulations. Kopelman, L.M., Irons, T.G., Kopelman, A.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Mifepristone (RU 486) in the United States. What does the future hold? Rosenfield, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. National gonorrhea therapy monitoring study: in vitro antibiotic susceptibility and its correlation with treatment results. Jaffe, H.W., Biddle, J.W., Thornsberry, C., Johnson, R.E., Kaufman, R.E., Reynolds, G.H., Wiesner, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  36. Tumor biologic factors and breast cancer prognosis among white, Hispanic, and black women in the United States. Elledge, R.M., Clark, G.M., Chamness, G.C., Osborne, C.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Association and linkage of the dopamine transporter gene and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: heterogeneity owing to diagnostic subtype and severity. Waldman, I.D., Rowe, D.C., Abramowitz, A., Kozel, S.T., Mohr, J.H., Sherman, S.L., Cleveland, H.H., Sanders, M.L., Gard, J.M., Stever, C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Molecular analysis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in the United States: high mutation detection rate among clinically selected families and characterization of an American founder genomic deletion of the MSH2 gene. Wagner, A., Barrows, A., Wijnen, J.T., van der Klift, H., Franken, P.F., Verkuijlen, P., Nakagawa, H., Geugien, M., Jaghmohan-Changur, S., Breukel, C., Meijers-Heijboer, H., Morreau, H., van Puijenbroek, M., Burn, J., Coronel, S., Kinarski, Y., Okimoto, R., Watson, P., Lynch, J.F., de la Chapelle, A., Lynch, H.T., Fodde, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. DFNA25, a novel locus for dominant nonsyndromic hereditary hearing impairment, maps to 12q21-24. Greene, C.C., McMillan, P.M., Barker, S.E., Kurnool, P., Lomax, M.I., Burmeister, M., Lesperance, M.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Anti-cytokine therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Maini, R.N., Taylor, P.C. Annu. Rev. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Buprenorphine suppresses cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys. Mello, N.K., Mendelson, J.H., Bree, M.P., Lukas, S.E. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  42. Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce on children in Great Britain and the United States. Cherlin, A.J., Furstenberg, F.F., Chase-Lansdale, L., Kiernan, K.E., Robins, P.K., Morrison, D.R., Teitler, J.O. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. Hepatitis B vaccine use in chronic hemodialysis centers in the United States. Alter, M.J., Favero, M.S., Maynard, J.E. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  44. Trends and correlates of class 3 obesity in the United States from 1990 through 2000. Freedman, D.S., Khan, L.K., Serdula, M.K., Galuska, D.A., Dietz, W.H. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  45. Swine flu vaccine and multiple sclerosis. Kurland, L.T., Molgaard, C.A., Kurland, E.M., Wiederholt, W.C., Kirkpatrick, J.W. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
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