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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Intralesional injection of adenovirus encoding CC chemokine ligand 16 inhibits mammary tumor growth and prevents metastatic-induced death after surgical removal of the treated primary tumor.

The CC chemokine ligand (CCL)16 exerts chemotactic activity on human monocytes and lymphocytes. Although no murine homologous has been defined, the TSA mouse adenocarcinoma cells engineered to express human CCL16 are rapidly rejected by syngenic mice. An adenovirus encoding CCL16 (AdCCL16) was generated using a Cre-Lox-based system and was used to determine whether this chemokine might also block pre-existing tumors. Both recombinant and viral CCL16 showed in vitro chemotactic activity for murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC). AdCCL16, but not the control empty vector, when injected in established nodules significantly delayed tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry revealed accumulation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and DC in the treated tumors as well as in draining lymph nodes. DC from such lymph nodes stimulated IFN-gamma by a T cell clone specific for the known TSA tumor-associated Ag (TAA), suggesting the tumor origin of these cells. Lymphocytes from the same nodes showed specific CTL activity against TSA tumor cells and their immunodominant TAA peptide. Antitumor activity required CD4, CD8, and IFN-gamma production, as shown using subset-depleted and knockout mice. Despite the robust and rapid immune response triggered by intratumoral injection of AdCCL16, the lesions were not completely rejected; however, the same treatment given before surgical excision of primary lesions prevented metastatic spread and cured 63% of mice bearing the 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma, which is perhaps the most compelling model of spontaneous metastasis.[1]


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