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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glutathione transferase zeta-catalyzed bioactivation of dichloroacetic acid: reaction of glyoxylate with amino acid nucleophiles.

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a drinking water contaminant, a therapeutic agent, and a rodent carcinogen. Glutathione transferase zeta (GSTZ1-1) catalyzes the biotransformation of a range of alpha-haloalkanoates and the cis-trans isomerization of maleylacetoacetate. GSTZ1-1 catalyzes the bioactivation of fluorine-lacking dihaloacetates to S-(alpha-halocarboxymethyl)glutathione, a reactive intermediate that covalently modifies and inactivates the enzyme or is hydrolyzed to glyoxylate. The purpose of this study was to examine the GSTZ1-1-catalyzed bioactivation of DCA, including the reaction of DCA-derived glyoxylate with amino acid nucleophiles and the characterization of the structures and kinetics of adduct formation by LC/MS. The binding of [1-(14)C]DCA-derived label to bovine serum albumin required both GSTZ1-1 and GSH, whereas the binding to dialyzed rat liver cytosolic protein was increased in the presence of GSH. Studies with model peptides (antiflammin-2 and IL-8 inhibitor) indicated that glyoxylate, rather than S-(alpha-chlorocarboxymethyl)glutathione, was the reactive species that modified amino acid nucleophiles. Both addition (+74 Da) and addition-elimination (+56 Da) adducts of glyoxylic acid were observed. Addition adducts (+74 Da) could not be characterized completely by mass spectrometry, whereas addition-elimination adducts (+56 Da) were characterized as 2-carboxy-4-imidazolidinones. 2-Carboxy-4-imidazolidinones were formed by the rapid equilibrium reaction of glyoxylate with the N-terminal amino group of antiflammin-2 to give an intermediate carbinolamine (K(eq) = 0.63 mM(-1)), which slowly eliminated water to give an intermediate imine (k(2) = 0.067 hour(-1)), which rapidly cyclized to give the 2-carboxy-4-imidazolidinone. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was inactivated partially by glyoxylate when reactants were reduced with sodium borodeuteride, which may indicate that glyoxylate reacts with selective lysine epsilon-amino groups. The results of the present study demonstrate that GSTZ1-1 catalyzes the bioactivation of DCA to the reactive metabolite glyoxylate. The reaction of glyoxylate with cellular macromolecules may be associated with the multiorgan toxicity of DCA.[1]


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