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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of protein kinase C betaII/epsilon-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in antitumor invasive activity induced by the polymethoxy flavonoid, nobiletin.

Flavonoids from medicinal plants have been therapeutically administered for cancer therapy. We recently reported that nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) exhibits novel antitumor invasive activities by suppressing the production of pro-matrix metalloproteinases (proMMPs) and augmenting the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, intracellular target molecules associated with the actions of nobiletin against tumor invasion were identified. Nobiletin inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) 1/2, but not the activity of Ras or the phosphorylation of Raf. Moreover, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, mimicked nobiletin's ability to decrease the production of proMMPs-1 and 9 in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In addition, neither the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) nor the phosphorylation of Akt was influenced by nobiletin. However, nobiletin was found to augment the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), a downstream signal factor of the PI3K-Akt pathway, in TPA-treated HT-1080 cells. A similar augmentation of JNK phosphorylation was observed on treatment with a PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002. Furthermore, nobiletin enhancement of TIMP-1 production in TPA- stimulated HT-1080 cells was found to be diminished by adding a JNK inhibitor, SP600125. Moreover, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor experiments showed that PKCbetaII/epsilon were associated with the nobiletin-mediated augmentation of JNK phosphorylation. Therefore, these results introduce novel evidence that the antitumor effects of nobiletin are finely regulated by the following intracellular mechanisms: (1) the inhibition of MEK1/2 activity is involved in the suppression of MMP expression and (2) the activation of the novel PKCbetaII/epsilon-JNK pathway is associated with the augmentation of TIMP-1 expression.[1]


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