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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

FLO11 is essential for flor formation caused by the C-terminal deletion of NRG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a flor on the surface of wine after alcoholic fermentation. High hydrophobicity of the cell surface is suggested to be important for flor formation by the flor wine yeasts. However, the molecular mechanism of flor formation is not clear. We found that expression of C-terminal deleted NRG1 lacking its two C2H2 zinc finger motifs (NRG1(1-470)) on the multicopy plasmid conferred the ability to form a flor to a non-flor laboratory strain. The cell surface hydrophobicity of NRG1(1-470) was higher than of the non-flor strain. Disruption of the Nrg1p- repressed gene FLO11, which encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that functions as a flocculin or an adhesin, abolished flor formation. Moreover, expression of FLO11 on a multicopy plasmid could also cause flor formation. These results indicate that FLO11 is essential for flor formation by NRG1(1-470). In addition, the results suggest that the C-terminal truncated form of Nrg1p exerts a dominant negative effect on FLO11 repression, resulting in FLO11 expression and, thus, flor formation.[1]


  1. FLO11 is essential for flor formation caused by the C-terminal deletion of NRG1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ishigami, M., Nakagawa, Y., Hayakawa, M., Iimura, Y. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
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