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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of endocrine disruptor para-nonylphenol on the cell growth and oxygen radical generation in Escherichia coli mutant cells deficient in catalase and superoxide dismutase.

para-Nonylphenol (NP) had previously been found to have strong suppressive effects of growth of bacterial and yeast cells, and these effects were associated with NP-induced generation of radical oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we determined that wild-type strains of Escherichia coli (CSH 7, SY-11, and IFO-3545) were resistant to NP compared with other sensitive microorganisms reported previously. To elucidate the relationship between NP-induced ROS generation and cell growth inhibition in more detail, we analyzed the effect of NP on cell growth and survival of wild-type and mutant E. coli strains deficient in ROS-scavenging enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The SOD-deficient strain QC 774 (sod A- and sod B-) was much more sensitive to NP than wild-type (CSH 7) and catalase-deficient (UM 1 kat E- and kat G-) strains. As a comparative experiment, when hydrogen peroxide was applied to the same growth and survival assays, UM 1 cells were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than QC 774 and CSH 7. A chemiluminescence (CHL) experiment using MCLA (2-methyl-6-Lf-methylphenyl]-3,7-dihydroimidazc [1,2-alpha] pyrazin-3-one) reflecting predominantly superoxide generation showed that NP caused marked CHL generation in QC 774 cells, but not in CSH 7 and UM 1 cells. However, the CHL experiment using L-012 reflecting predominantly hydroxyl radical and hypochlorite did not exhibit significant CHL generation in QC 774 cells at the same concentrations of NP. Furthermore, supplementation with SOD prevented NP-induced ROS generation and cell survival inhibition of QC 774 cells, but the catalase and metal-chelating agent deferoxamine did not have significant effects. These results suggest that one of the primary actions of NP in cells is the generation of superoxide which may be responsible for NP-induced cell growth inhibition.[1]


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