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Chemical Compound Review

Hypochlorite     hypochlorite

Synonyms: Hypochlorit, Hypochlorites, AG-D-86604, ClO(-), CHEBI:29222, ...
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Disease relevance of hypochlorite

  • These results suggest that neutrophil-derived oxidants (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorite) are generated in colorectal mucosa in active inflammatory bowel disease and support the hypothesis that production of such metabolites by neutrophils is of major pathogenetic importance [1].
  • The dose-response to three agents--ethanol, doxorubicin, and sodium hypochlorite--is shown and, in the case of sodium hypochlorite, compared to in vivo skin toxicity with a high correlation [2].
  • Hypochlorites are lethal to most microbes, although viruses and vegetative bacteria are more susceptible than endospore-forming bacteria, fungi, and protozoa [3].
  • Hypochlorite scavenging by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate [4].
  • In hyperlipidemic Thy-1 nephritis rats, which had a higher urinary protein excretion than normolipidemic rats, hypochlorite-modified proteins, an indirect measure for enhanced myeloperoxidase activity, were detected in renal tissue and in urine, respectively [5].

Psychiatry related information on hypochlorite

  • Initially, the reaction was studied in pure water at neutral pH (7.0), a range of reaction times (2-90 min), and a molar excess of hypochlorite (2-57 times) relative to the acetaminophen concentration [6].
  • The widespread use of household bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) as a disinfectant by IV drug users may cause an increase in the number of IV injections of this substance [7].
  • By contrast the risk reduction produced by hypochlorite at 5000 ppm was highly significant and was sufficient to reduce the number of contaminated surfaces to 2.9% [8].

High impact information on hypochlorite


Chemical compound and disease context of hypochlorite


Biological context of hypochlorite

  • Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that the high affinity binding sites are responsible for cell signaling induced by alpha2M*. Using sodium hypochlorite, a powerful oxidant produced by the H2O2-myeloperoxidase-Cl- system, we now demonstrate that binding to the high affinity sites correlates directly with activation of the signaling cascade [19].
  • The sprout grower applied a concentration of hypochlorite solution that was too low for seed disinfection [20].
  • Hypochlorite induces lipid peroxidation in blood lipoproteins and phospholipid liposomes [21].
  • The amidothionophosphate molecules were exposed to the oxidative stress of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite, and the chemical changes following the exposure were monitored by 31P NMR [22].
  • Hypochlorite-modified LDLs act as strong platelet agonists, inducing morphological changes, dense granule release, and irreversible platelet aggregation [23].

Anatomical context of hypochlorite


Associations of hypochlorite with other chemical compounds


Gene context of hypochlorite

  • Electrospray mass spectrometry and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that low concentrations of hypochlorite (40 microM) converted 70-80% of S100A8 to the disulfide-linked homodimer [33].
  • Proteasome activities remained intact at hypochlorite concentrations in which G6PD is maximally susceptible to proteasomal degradation [34].
  • Novel sulfonamide inhibitors of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC were prepared by reaction of aromatic or heterocyclic sulfonamides containing amino, imino, or hydrazino moieties with N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates in the presence of oxidizing agents (sodium hypochlorite or iodine) [35].
  • MMP-9 was at least partially activated by all protein-thiol group reactants and rather resistant to oxidative inhibition by hypochlorite (NaOCl); in contrast, MMP-2 was activated by APMA but not at all by gold thioglucose (GTG) and was clearly inactivated by hypochlorite (NaOCl).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[36]
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was treated with various concentrations of hypochlorite, which is produced by myeloperoxidase and is one of the most important oxidants during inflammatory processes [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of hypochlorite

  • A controlled study in two centres compared the efficacy of the standard continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) system with that of a new method consisting of a Y-shaped set filled with sodium hypochlorite during the dwelling time [37].
  • Hypochlorite treatment led to modified peptides in each case, which were detected by changes in retention on reversed-phase HPLC [38].
  • Skin testing supported the results of the ELISAs and demonstrated loss of skin test reactivity to the sodium hypochlorite-treated mold solutions in most of the subjects [39].
  • Using human iliac arteries we investigated the relationship between lesion stage indicated by the intima-to-media (I/M) ratio and the presence of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB, a marker for LDL), MPO, and hypochlorite (HOCl)-oxidized proteins identified by immunohistochemistry in the intima, media, and adventitia [40].
  • Using a new kit containing 2 micrograms of tin and 0.1% hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an oxidizing agent we labeled RBC with 99mTc avoiding centrifugation of cells [41].


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  2. Skin toxicity determined in vitro by three-dimensional, native-state histoculture. Li, L.N., Margolis, L.B., Hoffman, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Uses of inorganic hypochlorite (bleach) in health-care facilities. Rutala, W.A., Weber, D.J. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypochlorite scavenging by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate. Learn, D.B., Brestel, E.P., Seetharama, S. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Oxidant stress in hyperlipidemia-induced renal damage. Scheuer, H., Gwinner, W., Hohbach, J., Gröne, E.F., Brandes, R.P., Malle, E., Olbricht, C.J., Walli, A.K., Gröne, H.J. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Transformation of acetaminophen by chlorination produces the toxicants 1,4-benzoquinone and N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. Bedner, M., MacCrehan, W.A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Intravenous injection of household bleach. Morgan, D.L. Annals of emergency medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing Salmonella contamination in a laboratory model kitchen. Barker, J., Naeeni, M., Bloomfield, S.F. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Presence of hypochlorite-modified proteins in human atherosclerotic lesions. Hazell, L.J., Arnold, L., Flowers, D., Waeg, G., Malle, E., Stocker, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of the human analog of SR-BI and LOX-1 as receptors for hypochlorite-modified high density lipoprotein on human umbilical venous endothelial cells. Marsche, G., Levak-Frank, S., Quehenberger, O., Heller, R., Sattler, W., Malle, E. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide chloramines and neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Bernofsky, C. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of native and hypochlorite-modified low-density lipoprotein on gene expression in human proximal tubular epithelium. Porubsky, S., Schmid, H., Bonrouhi, M., Kretzler, M., Malle, E., Nelson, P.J., Gröne, H.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Class B scavenger receptors CD36 and SR-BI are receptors for hypochlorite-modified low density lipoprotein. Marsche, G., Zimmermann, R., Horiuchi, S., Tandon, N.N., Sattler, W., Malle, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and identification of actinobacteria from surface-sterilized wheat roots. Coombs, J.T., Franco, C.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Improved laboratory safety by decontamination of unstained sputum smears for acid-fast microscopy. Giacomelli, L.R., Helbel, C., Ogassawara, R.L., Barreto, A.M., Martins, F.M., Cardoso, C.L., Leite, C.Q. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Cohort mortality study of pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia, Canada. Band, P.R., Le, N.D., Fang, R., Threlfall, W.J., Astrakianakis, G., Anderson, J.T., Keefe, A., Krewski, D. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Generation of hypochlorite-modified proteins by neutrophils during ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat liver: attenuation by ischemic preconditioning. Hasegawa, T., Malle, E., Farhood, A., Jaeschke, H. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Differing L-alanine germination requirements of hypochlorite-treated Clostridium botulinum spores from two crops. Foegeding, P.M., Busta, F.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. The binding of receptor-recognized alpha2-macroglobulin to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the alpha2M signaling receptor is decoupled by oxidation. Wu, S.M., Boyer, C.M., Pizzo, S.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4b outbreak associated with bean sprouts. van Duynhoven, Y.T., Widdowson, M.A., de Jager, C.M., Fernandes, T., Neppelenbroek, S., van den Brandhof, W., Wannet, W.J., van Kooij, J.A., Rietveld, H.J., van Pelt, W. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Hypochlorite induces lipid peroxidation in blood lipoproteins and phospholipid liposomes. Panasenko, O.M., Evgina, S.A., Driomina, E.S., Sharov, V.S., Sergienko, V.I., Vladimirov, Y.A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Antioxidant properties of amidothionophosphates: novel antioxidant molecules. Tirosh, O., Katzhendler, Y., Barenholz, Y., Ginsburg, I., Kohen, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Modification of protein moiety of human low density lipoprotein by hypochlorite generates strong platelet agonist. Volf, I., Bielek, E., Moeslinger, T., Koller, F., Koller, E. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Antiarthritic drugs containing thiol groups scavenge hypochlorite and inhibit its formation by myeloperoxidase from human leukocytes. A therapeutic mechanism of these drugs in rheumatoid arthritis? Cuperus, R.A., Muijsers, A.O., Wever, R. Arthritis Rheum. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Hypochlorite-modified high density lipoprotein, a high affinity ligand to scavenger receptor class B, type I, impairs high density lipoprotein-dependent selective lipid uptake and reverse cholesterol transport. Marsche, G., Hammer, A., Oskolkova, O., Kozarsky, K.F., Sattler, W., Malle, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Chlorination of pyridinium compounds. Possible role of hypochlorite, N-chloramines, and chlorine in the oxidation of pyridinoline cross-links of articular cartilage collagen type II during acute inflammation. Daumer, K.M., Khan, A.U., Steinbeck, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Hypochlorite-modified low density lipoprotein inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells via an intracellular dislocalization of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase. Nuszkowski, A., Gräbner, R., Marsche, G., Unbehaun, A., Malle, E., Heller, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Studies on the chlorinating activity of myeloperoxidase. Harrison, J.E., Schultz, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Cloning and expression of the bioluminescent photoprotein pholasin from the bivalve mollusc Pholas dactylus. Dunstan, S.L., Sala-Newby, G.B., Fajardo, A.B., Taylor, K.M., Campbell, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Sensitive and nonenzymatic measurement of hydrogen peroxide in biological systems. Mueller, S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Allergic potency of recombinant Fel d 1 is reduced by low concentrations of chlorine bleach. Matsui, E., Kagey-Sobotka, A., Chichester, K., Eggleston, P.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Nitrite-induced deamination and hypochlorite-induced oxidation of DNA in intact human respiratory tract epithelial cells. Spencer, J.P., Whiteman, M., Jenner, A., Halliwell, B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Oxidation regulates the inflammatory properties of the murine S100 protein S100A8. Harrison, C.A., Raftery, M.J., Walsh, J., Alewood, P., Iismaa, S.E., Thliveris, S., Geczy, C.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Degradation of hypochlorite-damaged glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by the 20S proteasome. Ullrich, O., Reinheckel, T., Sitte, N., Grune, T. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: sulfonamides as antitumor agents? Supuran, C.T., Briganti, F., Tilli, S., Chegwidden, W.R., Scozzafava, A. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Identification and characterization of gelatinases/type IV collagenases in jaw cysts. Teronen, O., Salo, T., Konttinen, Y.T., Rifkin, B., Vernillo, A., Ramamurthy, N.S., Kjeldsen, L., Borregaard, N., Hietanen, J., Sorsa, T. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Prospective controlled trial of a Y-connector and disinfectant to prevent peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Maiorca, R., Cantaluppi, A., Cancarini, G.C., Scalamogna, A., Broccoli, R., Graziani, G., Brasa, S., Ponticelli, C. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Relative reactivity of lysine and other peptide-bound amino acids to oxidation by hypochlorite. Nightingale, Z.D., Lancha, A.H., Handelman, S.K., Dolnikowski, G.G., Busse, S.C., Dratz, E.A., Blumberg, J.B., Handelman, G.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Aerosolized sodium hypochlorite inhibits viability and allergenicity of mold on building materials. Martyny, J.W., Harbeck, R.J., Pacheco, K., Barker, E.A., Sills, M., Silveira, L., Arbuckle, S., Newman, L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Correlation between intima-to-media ratio, apolipoprotein B-100, myeloperoxidase, and hypochlorite-oxidized proteins in human atherosclerosis. Hazell, L.J., Baernthaler, G., Stocker, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Technetium-99m labeling of red blood cells: in vitro evaluation of a new approach. Kelbaek, H. J. Nucl. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
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