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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of Xenopus tropicalis noggin1 and noggin2 in early development: two noggin genes in a tetrapod.

We report the identification of two distinct noggin genes in the tetrapod Xenopus tropicalis. Noggin functions to antagonize BMP signaling in many developmental contexts, and much work has explored its role in early vertebrate development. We have identified two noggin genes in the tropical clawed frog, X. tropicalis, a diploid anuran which is being explored for its potential as a genetic model system for early vertebrate development. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the Xenopus tropicalis noggin1 and noggin2 genes, which have distinct expression domains in the early embryo with one overlapping domain in the anterior neural tissue. X. tropicalis noggin1 expression is very similar to that of noggin in Xenopus laevis, with expression beginning in the blastula organizer region and continuing through gastrulation and neurulation in the organizer and notochord. Later, it is also expressed in the anterior neural ridge and subsequent forebrain; noggin1 is also expressed in the pharyngeal arches after neural tube closure. At the tadpole stage expression is maintained in the dorsal neural tube and is present in the otic vesicle. However, the expression of noggin2 is much more similar to the expression of noggin2 in D. rerio with expression in the forebrain, hindbrain, and somites, but unlike D. rerio, X. tropicalis noggin2 is expressed in the heart by stage 28. This work presents the first example of a tetrapod with at least two noggin genes.[1]


  1. Expression of Xenopus tropicalis noggin1 and noggin2 in early development: two noggin genes in a tetrapod. Fletcher, R.B., Watson, A.L., Harland, R.M. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
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