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Disease relevance of Larva


Psychiatry related information on Larva


High impact information on Larva

  • WDR5 is essential for vertebrate development, in that WDR5-depleted X. laevis tadpoles exhibit a variety of developmental defects and abnormal spatial Hox gene expression [8].
  • Niazi and Saxena first observed that vitamin A has an inhibitory and modifying influence on tail regeneration in Bufo andersonii tadpoles [9].
  • We have now determined the sequence of the alpha- and beta-globin chains of coelacanth haemoglobin and compared them with all known haemoglobins of bony and cartilaginous fish as well as those of tadpoles and adult amphibians [10].
  • Our results indicate that thyroxine, the hormone which causes metamorphosis in the frog Xenopus laevis, can induce precociously in a pre-metamorphic tadpole the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection, a retinofugal pathway which normally develops during metamorphosis [11].
  • Increase in binding capacity for triiodothyronine in tadpole tail nuclei during metamorphosis [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Larva


Biological context of Larva


Anatomical context of Larva

  • In Xenopus tadpole VEGF-C knockdowns and in mice lacking Vegfc, the proliferation of neural progenitors expressing VEGFR-3 was severely reduced, in the absence of intracerebral blood vessel defects [22].
  • Transgenic tadpoles that express a dominant negative thyroid hormone (TH) receptor specifically in their skin undergo normal metamorphosis, with one exception: they retain a larval epidermis over the developing adult epithelium [23].
  • Total RNA of tadpole and frog (Rana catesbeiana) liver was isolated by either 7 or 8 M guanidine . HCl extraction and translated in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from rabbit reticulocytes [24].
  • Exposure of tadpoles at premetamorphic stages (48-52) to exogenous thyroid hormone (T3) substantially enhanced the accumulation of TR mRNA, especially that of TR beta message, which could explain the accelerated increase in sensitivity of tadpoles to thyroid hormones at the onset of natural metamorphosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[25]
  • Interestingly, v-erbA mRNA injection and citral treatment of gastrula stage embryos resulted in tadpoles with a similar set of developmental defects [26].

Associations of Larva with chemical compounds

  • Thus the thyroxine-induced synthesis of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I in tadpole liver is at least partly due to an increase of translatable mRNA for this enzyme [24].
  • This difference is because of the conversion of T4 to T3 in target cells of the tadpole catalyzed by the enzyme type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) and the local effect (cell autonomy) of this activity [27].
  • Antipain had no significant effect on leucine incorporation into total protein of tadpole liver [28].
  • The PTU-reared tadpoles remained by external criteria at stage 54 [29].
  • It is concluded that the myoplasm of ascidian eggs contains an intermediate filament-like cytoskeletal network which is missing in anural species that have modified or eliminated the tadpole larva [30].

Gene context of Larva

  • Furthermore, overexpression of a dominant-negative N-CoR in tadpole tail muscle led to increased transcription from a T(3)-dependent promoter [31].
  • We found that TBLR1, SMRT, and N-CoR are recruited to T(3)-inducible promoters in premetamorphic tadpoles and are released upon T(3) treatment, which induces metamorphosis [32].
  • Using the in vivo tadpole assay system, we further show that misexpression of GLI1 induces CNS hyperproliferation that depends on the activation of endogenous Gli1 function [33].
  • We show that CRF is expressed in tadpole tail, is up-regulated by environmental stressors, and is cytoprotective [34].
  • The vri gene encodes a new member of the bZIP family of transcription factors closely related to gene 9 of Xenopus laevis, induced by thyroid hormone during the tadpole tail resorption program, and NF-IL3A, a human T cell transcription factor that transactivates the interleukin-3 promoter [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Larva

  • In situ hybridization analysis of the expression of Xhox3 in neural tissue shows that it is restricted within the neural tube and the cranial neural crest during the tailbud-early tadpole stages [36].
  • Immunohistochemistry by using monoclonal antibodies named A5 and B2, which specifically recognize cell surface proteins the neuropilin and the plexin, respectively, revealed that olfactory axons in Xenopus tadpoles were classified into several subgroups by virtue of the expression levels of these two cell surface molecules [37].
  • In whites and blacks, nocturnal (dark phase, sleeping) melatonin levels were almost always elevated to 0.05-0.1 ng/ml plasma compared with lower or undetectable levels during the day, measured by the tadpole bioassay [38].
  • We now demonstrate that PRL prevents the rapid T3-induced upregulation of TR alpha and beta mRNAs in stages 50-54 Xenopus tadpoles and in organ cultures of tadpole tails [39].
  • We confirmed transformation and expression by Northern blot analysis of the recombinant yeast, by Western blot analysis using an antibody against Escherichia coli-expressed TFH, and with Prussian blue staining that indicated that the yeast-expressed tadpole ferritin was assembled into a complex that could bind iron [40].


  1. NMDA receptor antagonists disrupt the retinotectal topographic map. Cline, H.T., Constantine-Paton, M. Neuron (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative functional analysis of rat TGF-beta1 and Xenopus laevis TGF-beta5 promoters suggest differential regulations. Goswami, M.T., Desai, K.V., Kondaiah, P. J. Mol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia. Busk, M., Larsen, E.H., Jensen, F.B. J. Exp. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Respiration during chronic hypoxia and hyperoxia in larval and adult bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). II. Changes in respiratory properties of whole blood. Pinder, A., Burggren, W. J. Exp. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of two novel pesticides on amphibian, Rana N. Hallowell. Feng, S., Kong, Z., Wang, X., Zhao, L., Peng, P. Chemosphere (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of vasotocin on locomotor activity in bullfrogs varies with developmental stage and sex. Boyd, S.K. Hormones and behavior. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Roles of stress hormones in food intake regulation in anuran amphibians throughout the life cycle. Crespi, E.J., Denver, R.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. WDR5 associates with histone H3 methylated at K4 and is essential for H3 K4 methylation and vertebrate development. Wysocka, J., Swigut, T., Milne, T.A., Dou, Y., Zhang, X., Burlingame, A.L., Roeder, R.G., Brivanlou, A.H., Allis, C.D. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Limbs generated at site of tail amputation in marbled balloon frog after vitamin A treatment. Mohanty-Hejmadi, P., Dutta, S.K., Mahapatra, P. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Close tetrapod relationships of the coelacanth Latimeria indicated by haemoglobin sequences. Gorr, T., Kleinschmidt, T., Fricke, H. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in Xenopus laevis by thyroxine. Hoskins, S.G., Grobstein, P. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Increase in binding capacity for triiodothyronine in tadpole tail nuclei during metamorphosis. Yoshizato, K., Frieden, E. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Three types of serotonin-containing amacrine cells in tadpole retina have distinct clonal origins. Huang, S., Moody, S.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacological activation of locomotor patterns in larval and adult frog spinal cords. McClellan, A.D., Farel, P.B. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in body water and plasma constituents during bullfrog development: effects of temperature and hormones. Brown, S.C., Horgan, E.A., Savage, L.M., Brown, P.S. J. Exp. Zool. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. The toxicity of glyphosate and several glyphosate formulations to four species of southwestern Australian frogs. Mann, R.M., Bidwell, J.R. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Thyroid hormone induces apoptosis in primary cell cultures of tadpole intestine: cell type specificity and effects of extracellular matrix. Su, Y., Shi, Y., Stolow, M.A., Shi, Y.B. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Cultured cells as a model for amphibian metamorphosis. Kanamori, A., Brown, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyroid hormone controls the development of connections between the spinal cord and limbs during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Marsh-Armstrong, N., Cai, L., Brown, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. ABCA4 mutations causing mislocalization are found frequently in patients with severe retinal dystrophies. Wiszniewski, W., Zaremba, C.M., Yatsenko, A.N., Jamrich, M., Wensel, T.G., Lewis, R.A., Lupski, J.R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Structure and expression of the chicken ferritin H-subunit gene. Stevens, P.W., Dodgson, J.B., Engel, J.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. VEGF-C is a trophic factor for neural progenitors in the vertebrate embryonic brain. Le Bras, B., Barallobre, M.J., Homman-Ludiye, J., Ny, A., Wyns, S., Tammela, T., Haiko, P., Karkkainen, M.J., Yuan, L., Muriel, M.P., Chatzopoulou, E., Bréant, C., Zalc, B., Carmeliet, P., Alitalo, K., Eichmann, A., Thomas, J.L. Nat. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Tadpole skin dies autonomously in response to thyroid hormone at metamorphosis. Schreiber, A.M., Brown, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Cell-free translation and thyroxine induction of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I messenger RNA in tadpole liver. Mori, M., Morris, S.M., Cohen, P.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Developmental and regional expression of thyroid hormone receptor genes during Xenopus metamorphosis. Kawahara, A., Baker, B.S., Tata, J.R. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. v-erbA and citral reduce the teratogenic effects of all-trans retinoic acid and retinol, respectively, in Xenopus embryogenesis. Schuh, T.J., Hall, B.L., Kraft, J.C., Privalsky, M.L., Kimelman, D. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Timing of metamorphosis and the onset of the negative feedback loop between the thyroid gland and the pituitary is controlled by type II iodothyronine deiodinase in Xenopus laevis. Huang, H., Cai, L., Remo, B.F., Brown, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Antipain inhibits thyroxine-induced synthesis of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I in tadpole liver. Mori, M., Cohen, P.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in the frog Xenopus laevis. III. The role of thyroxine. Hoskins, S.G., Grobstein, P. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of a cytoskeletal protein localized in the myoplasm of ascidian eggs: localization is modified during anural development. Swalla, B.J., Badgett, M.R., Jeffery, W.R. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor in gene repression during Xenopus laevis development. Sachs, L.M., Jones, P.L., Havis, E., Rouse, N., Demeneix, B.A., Shi, Y.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT-TBLR1 corepressor complex by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor for gene repression during frog development. Tomita, A., Buchholz, D.R., Shi, Y.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. The Sonic Hedgehog-Gli pathway regulates dorsal brain growth and tumorigenesis. Dahmane, N., Sánchez, P., Gitton, Y., Palma, V., Sun, T., Beyna, M., Weiner, H., Ruiz i Altaba, A. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Corticotropin-releasing factor is cytoprotective in Xenopus tadpole tail: coordination of ligand, receptor, and binding protein in tail muscle cell survival. Boorse, G.C., Kholdani, C.A., Seasholtz, A.F., Denver, R.J. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. The vrille gene of Drosophila is a maternal enhancer of decapentaplegic and encodes a new member of the bZIP family of transcription factors. George, H., Terracol, R. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Neural expression of the Xenopus homeobox gene Xhox3: evidence for a patterning neural signal that spreads through the ectoderm. Ruiz i Altaba, A. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Differential expression of two cell surface proteins, neuropilin and plexin, in Xenopus olfactory axon subclasses. Satoda, M., Takagi, S., Ohta, K., Hirata, T., Fujisawa, H. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in young men: attempts at modification by brief changes in environmental lighting and sleep and by autonomic drugs. Vaughan, G.M., Pelham, R.W., Pang, S.F., Loughlin, L.L., Wilson, K.M., Sandock, K.L., Vaughan, M.K., Koslow, S.H., Reiter, R.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  39. Prolactin prevents the autoinduction of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs during amphibian metamorphosis. Baker, B.S., Tata, J.R. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Enhanced iron uptake of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by heterologous expression of a tadpole ferritin gene. Shin, Y.M., Kwon, T.H., Kim, K.S., Chae, K.S., Kim, D.H., Kim, J.H., Yang, M.S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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