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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs), such as enalaprilat, benazeprilat, imidaprilat and ramiprilat, differ from those of conventional drugs. This is because of their immediate and saturable binding to an ACE pool which is partly circulating (and contributing to the measured plasma concentration), and partly noncirculating (tissular), being anchored to the endothelium of vessels and not measurable by the analytical technique. A physiologically based model is required to allow appropriate interpretation of the different phases of the disposition curve of ACEI. The protracted terminal phase observed for all ACEIs is not a conventional elimination phase but a phase dependent on ACEI dissociation from ACE. In contrast, the phase which reflects ACEI elimination (and which is interpreted as a distribution phase for a conventional drug) has a short half-life, thus explaining the absence of drug accumulation during repeated dosing and mild kidney failure. ACE inhibition is the surrogate endpoint generally selected for establishing a PK/PD relationship and for simulating dosage regimen scenarios in order to decide on the appropriate dosage regimen for ACEIs.[1]


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