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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) combined with mucosal vaccine protects against influenza virus infection.

The mucosal adjuvant effect of synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] against influenza virus was examined under intranasal coadministration with inactivated hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine in BALB/c mice and was shown to have a protective effect against both nasal-restricted infection and lethal lung infection. Intranasal administration of vaccine from PR8 (H1N1) with poly(I:C) induced a high anti-HA immunoglobulin A (IgA) response in the nasal wash and IgG antibody response in the serum, while vaccination without poly(I:C) induced little response. Intracerebral injection confirmed the safety of poly(I:C). In addition, we demonstrated that administration of poly(I:C) with either A/Beijing (H1N1) or A/Yamagata (H1N1) vaccine conferred complete protection against PR8 challenge in this mouse nasal infection model, suggesting that poly(I:C) possessed cross-protection ability against variant viruses. To investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of poly(I:C), mRNA levels of Toll-like receptors and cytokines were examined in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue after vaccination or virus challenge. Intranasal administration of HA vaccine with poly(I:C) up-regulated expression of Toll-like receptor 3 and alpha/beta interferons as well as Th1- and Th2-related cytokines. We propose that poly(I:C) is a new effective intranasal adjuvant for influenza virus vaccine.[1]


  1. Synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) combined with mucosal vaccine protects against influenza virus infection. Ichinohe, T., Watanabe, I., Ito, S., Fujii, H., Moriyama, M., Tamura, S., Takahashi, H., Sawa, H., Chiba, J., Kurata, T., Sata, T., Hasegawa, H. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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