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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The role of leukotriene B4 in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced ileitis in rats.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile toxin A is a potent intestinal inflammatory agent that has been shown to act at least partially by neurogenic mechanisms involving activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) (capsaicin) receptor. We tested the hypothesis that leukotriene B4 (LTB4) mediates the effects of toxin A via activation of the TRPV1 receptor. METHODS: Isolated rat ileal segments were pretreated with pharmacologic agents before intraluminal injection of toxin A or LTB4. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed by luminal fluid accumulation, myeloperoxidase activity, and histology. RESULTS: LTB4 caused ileitis similar to that caused by toxin A and antagonism of TRPV1 receptors but not LTB4 receptors inhibited LTB4-induced inflammation. LTB4 also stimulated TRPV1-mediated substance P release and pretreatment with a specific substance P-receptor antagonist blocked LTB4-induced substance P action and ileitis. Inhibition of the LTB4 biosynthetic enzyme 5-lipoxygenase inhibited toxin A-induced increases in ileal LTB4 levels and toxin A- but not LTB4-induced ileitis. CONCLUSIONS: LTB4 mediates the inflammatory effects of toxin A via activation of TRPV1 receptors.[1]


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