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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparative investigation of the LOV1 and LOV2 domains in Adiantum phytochrome3.

Phototropin (phot) is a blue-light photoreceptor for phototropic responses, relocation of chloroplasts, and stomata opening in plants. Phototropin has two chromophore-binding domains named LOV1 and LOV2 in its N-terminal half, each of which binds a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) noncovalently. The C-terminal half is a Ser/Thr kinase. A transgenic study of Arabidopsis suggested that only LOV2 domain is necessary for the kinase activity, whereas X-ray crystallographic structures of LOV1 and LOV2 domains are almost identical. These facts imply that the detailed structures and/or structural changes are different between LOV1 and LOV2 domains. In this study, we compared light-induced structural changes of the LOV1 and LOV2 domains of a phototropin, Adiantum phytochrome3 (phy3), by means of UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Photochemical properties of an adduct formation between FMN and a cysteine are essentially similar between phy3-LOV1 and phy3-LOV2. On the other hand, the S-H group of the reactive cysteine forms a hydrogen bond in phy3-LOV1, which is strengthened at low temperatures. This is possibly correlated with the fact that no adduct formation takes place for phy3-LOV1 at 77 K as revealed by the UV-visible absorption spectra. The most prominent difference was seen in the amide-I vibration that monitors the secondary structure of peptide backbone. Protein structural changes in phy3-LOV2 involve the regions of loops, alpha-helices, and beta-sheets, which differ significantly among various temperatures. Extended protein structural changes are probably correlated with the signal transduction activity of LOV2. In contrast, protein structural changes were very small in phy3-LOV1, and they were almost temperature independent. The photocycle of phy3-LOV1 takes 3.1 h, being more than 100 times longer than that of phy3-LOV2. These facts suggest that Adiantum phy3-LOV1 does not work for light sensing, being consistent with the previous transgenic study of Arabidopsis. It is likely that plants utilize a unique protein architecture (LOV domain) for different functions by regulating their protein structural changes.[1]


  1. Comparative investigation of the LOV1 and LOV2 domains in Adiantum phytochrome3. Iwata, T., Nozaki, D., Tokutomi, S., Kandori, H. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
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