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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Stomas


High impact information on Stomas

  • Here we report that tobacco, a typical C3 plant, shows characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in cells of stems and petioles that surround the xylem and phloem, and that these cells are supplied with carbon for photosynthesis from the vascular system and not from stomata [6].
  • Here we show that in a double mutant of phot1 and phot2 stomata do not respond to blue light although single mutants are phenotypically normal [7].
  • In response to drought, plants synthesize the hormone abscisic acid, which triggers closing of stomata, thus reducing water loss [8].
  • If H2O2 production is blocked, ABA-induced closure of stomata is inhibited [9].
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter AtMRP5 controls root development and stomata movement [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Stomas

  • Of six variables evaluated (previous procedure, steroid use, steroid dosage, associated Crohn's disease, associated procedures and diverting stoma), only associated procedures were significantly related to a successful outcome (P=0.008) [11].
  • Weight loss patterns and revision rates in three sequential groups of patients with gastric bypasses and loop gastroenterostomies between 1965 and 1978 demonstrate the importance of a 50 ml volume of the upper segment measured at 25 to 30 cm water luminal pressure and a 10 to 12 mm diameter stoma [12].
  • During the onset of water stress, analyses of the response of net carbon assimilation of leaves to their intercellular CO2 concentration were used to examine the potential limitations imposed by stomata, carboxylation velocity and capacity for regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate on photosynthesis [13].
  • Enterobacter cloacae, sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftazidime), was isolated from the stoma of a patient with leukaemia [14].
  • Slight chlorosis and/or necrosis of the needle tips and stomatal areas, changes in the needle surface waxes and localization of S into needle tips and mesophyll cells around the stomata suggested the impact of S deposition, as did the calculations of St/Nt, and 'predicted' and 'excess' S [15].

Biological context of Stomas

  • SDD1 overexpression in the wild type leads to a phenotype opposite to that caused by the sdd1-1 mutation, with a twofold to threefold decrease in stomatal density and the formation of arrested stomata [16].
  • Reporter gene studies showed that AtMRP4 is highly expressed in stomata and that the protein is localized to the plasma membrane [17].
  • The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress; in regions undergoing growth; in vascular tissues and various floral organs; and in stomata, trichomes, and hydathodes [18].
  • However, induction of CAM per se also has the potential for increasing the oxidative burden via the enhanced internal O2 concentrations that develop behind closed stomata during daytime decarboxylation [19].
  • The effect of local anesthetic aerosol inhalation on the ventilatory response and the sensation of breathlessness to CO2 rebreathing was studied in seven healthy male subjects with permanent tracheal stomas after laryngectomy for carcinoma [20].

Anatomical context of Stomas


Associations of Stomas with chemical compounds

  • We suggest that stomata sense changes in the intercellular CO2 concentration and thus the photosynthetic activity of the mesophyll via feedback regulation of anion efflux from guard cells through malate-sensitive GCAC1 [26].
  • Guard cell [Ca2+]cyt increased, whereas pHcyt decreased after treatment of closed stomata with IAA, kinetin, or FC [27].
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing in atmospheric concentration since the Industrial Revolution. A decreasing number of stomata on leaves of land plants still provides the only morphological evidence that this man-made increase has already affected the biosphere [28].
  • Short asbestos fibers (90.6% less than or equal to 2 mu in length), silica, or titanium dioxide particles (less than or equal to 5 mu in diameter) were cleared through these stomata without provoking an inflammatory reaction or mesothelial injury [29].
  • Our results suggest that guard cells infected by pathogens may close their stomata via a pathway involving H(2)O(2) production, thus interfering with the continuous invasion of pathogens through the stomatal pores [30].

Gene context of Stomas

  • Stomata of the cry1 cry2 double mutant showed reduced blue light response, whereas those of the CRY1-overexpressing plants showed hypersensitive response to blue light [31].
  • Both NEC and stoma samples expressed MMP-9 in inflammatory cells [32].
  • In the RLK902 pro::GUS transgenic lines, GUS activity was strong in the root tips, lateral root primordia, stipules, and floral organ abscission zones, while the RKL1 promoter activity was dominant in the stomata cells, hydathodes and trichomes of young rosette leaves, and floral organ abscission zones [33].
  • In the stomata, transcripts of AtPDR8 were particularly frequent in the cells surrounding air spaces [34].
  • The mesothelial cells of the milky spots showed higher ICAM-1 levels than did those of other omental regions, and fibronectin was detected in the stomata [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Stomas

  • Neostigmine has been found to decrease lymphatic absorption in rats, presumably by causing constriction of the lymphatic stomata [36].
  • Gastroscopy and insertion of a jejunal feeding tube via a PEG stoma with 5-mm neonatal endoscope (Olympus GIF N30) [37].
  • A sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed for the quantification of the neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium and its putative metabolites (the 17-desacetyl derivative and the N-desallyl derivative of rocuronium) in plasma, urine, bile, tissue homogenates and stoma fluid [38].
  • First, the cosmetic position of the incision is particularly attractive to the young population affected by Crohn's. Second, the Pfannenstiel incision preserves fresh tissue in the midline, right, and left lower quadrants in the event that reoperation or stoma placement are required in the future owing to recurrent disease [39].
  • Blood perfusion was measured in the proximal and distal bowel stomas before pedicle division (control) and 24 hours later using hydrogen gas clearance and fluorescein dye [40].


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  6. Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Hibberd, J.M., Quick, W.P. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Kinoshita, T., Doi, M., Suetsugu, N., Kagawa, T., Wada, M., Shimazaki, K. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Guard cell abscisic acid signalling and engineering drought hardiness in plants. Schroeder, J.I., Kwak, J.M., Allen, G.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Pei, Z.M., Murata, Y., Benning, G., Thomine, S., Klüsener, B., Allen, G.J., Grill, E., Schroeder, J.I. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter AtMRP5 controls root development and stomata movement. Gaedeke, N., Klein, M., Kolukisaoglu, U., Forestier, C., Müller, A., Ansorge, M., Becker, D., Mamnun, Y., Kuchler, K., Schulz, B., Mueller-Roeber, B., Martinoia, E. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  16. The subtilisin-like serine protease SDD1 mediates cell-to-cell signaling during Arabidopsis stomatal development. Von Groll, U., Berger, D., Altmann, T. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Disruption of AtMRP4, a guard cell plasma membrane ABCC-type ABC transporter, leads to deregulation of stomatal opening and increased drought susceptibility. Klein, M., Geisler, M., Suh, S.J., Kolukisaoglu, H.U., Azevedo, L., Plaza, S., Curtis, M.D., Richter, A., Weder, B., Schulz, B., Martinoia, E. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. CML24, regulated in expression by diverse stimuli, encodes a potential Ca2+ sensor that functions in responses to abscisic acid, daylength, and ion stress. Delk, N.A., Johnson, K.A., Chowdhury, N.I., Braam, J. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Are the metabolic components of crassulacean acid metabolism up-regulated in response to an increase in oxidative burden? Borland, A., Elliott, S., Patterson, S., Taybi, T., Cushman, J., Pater, B., Barnes, J. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Aerosol anesthesia increases hypercapnic ventilation and breathlessness in laryngectomized humans. Hamilton, R.D., Winning, A.J., Perry, A., Guz, A. J. Appl. Physiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. arc6, an extreme chloroplast division mutant of Arabidopsis also alters proplastid proliferation and morphology in shoot and root apices. Robertson, E.J., Pyke, K.A., Leech, R.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. A common position-dependent mechanism controls cell-type patterning and GLABRA2 regulation in the root and hypocotyl epidermis of Arabidopsis. Hung, C.Y., Lin, Y., Zhang, M., Pollock, S., Marks, M.D., Schiefelbein, J. Plant Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Androgen and estrogen receptors in rat ventral prostate epithelium and stroma. Jung-Testas, I., Groyer, M.T., Bruner-Lorand, J., Hechter, O., Baulieu, E.E., Robel, P. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
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  27. Changes in cytosolic pH and calcium of guard cells precede stomatal movements. Irving, H.R., Gehring, C.A., Parish, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. A natural experiment on plant acclimation: lifetime stomatal frequency response of an individual tree to annual atmospheric CO2 increase. Wagner, F., Below, R., Klerk, P.D., Dilcher, D.L., Joosten, H., Kürschner, W.M., Visscher, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  30. Oligogalacturonic acid and chitosan reduce stomatal aperture by inducing the evolution of reactive oxygen species from guard cells of tomato and Commelina communis. Lee, S., Choi, H., Suh, S., Doo, I.S., Oh, K.Y., Choi, E.J., Schroeder Taylor, A.T., Low, P.S., Lee, Y. Plant Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. From The Cover: A role for Arabidopsis cryptochromes and COP1 in the regulation of stomatal opening. Mao, J., Zhang, Y.C., Sang, Y., Li, Q.H., Yang, H.Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Matrilysins-1 and -2 (MMP-7 and -26) and metalloelastase (MMP-12), unlike MMP-19, are up-regulated in necrotizing enterocolitis. Bister, V., Salmela, M.T., Heikkilä, P., Anttila, A., Rintala, R., Isaka, K., Andersson, S., Saarialho-Kere, U. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular characterization of two highly homologous receptor-like kinase genes, RLK902 and RKL1, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Tarutani, Y., Morimoto, T., Sasaki, A., Yasuda, M., Nakashita, H., Yoshida, S., Yamaguchi, I., Suzuki, Y. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Loss of AtPDR8, a Plasma Membrane ABC Transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, Causes Hypersensitive Cell Death Upon Pathogen Infection. Kobae, Y., Sekino, T., Yoshioka, H., Nakagawa, T., Martinoia, E., Maeshima, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Biodefense function of omental milky spots through cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte proliferation. Cui, L., Johkura, K., Liang, Y., Teng, R., Ogiwara, N., Okouchi, Y., Asanuma, K., Sasaki, K. Cell Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of intraperitoneal neostigmine on peritoneal transport characteristics in CAPD. Hasbargen, J.A., Hasbargen, B.J., Fortenbery, E.J. Kidney Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Gastroscopy and insertion of a jejunal feeding tube via a PEG stoma with 5-mm neonatal endoscope (Olympus GIF N30). Patchett, S., Fregonese, D., Fairclough, P. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Determination of rocuronium and its putative metabolites in body fluids and tissue homogenates. Kleef, U.W., Proost, J.H., Roggeveld, J., Wierda, J.M. J. Chromatogr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Laparoscopically assisted ileocolectomy for Crohn's disease through a pfannenstiel incision. Greene, A.K., Michetti, P., Peppercorn, M.A., Hodin, R.A. Am. J. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. The timing and nature of neovascularization of jejunal free flaps: an experimental study in a large animal model. Cordeiro, P.G., Santamaria, E., Hu, Q.Y., DiResta, G.R., Reuter, V.E. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
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