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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interaction between Rtg2p and Mks1p in the regulation of the RTG pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Retrograde signaling mediates nuclear gene expression in response to changes in the functional state of mitochondria. In budding yeast, retrograde signaling, also termed the RTG pathway, relies on the heterodimeric, basic helix-loop-helix zipper transcription factors, Rtg1p and Rtg3p, for the activation of target gene expression. Activation of the RTG pathway leads to partial dephosphorylation of Rtg3p and its translocation, together with Rtg1p, from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These processes depend on a positive regulatory factor, Rtg2p, a novel protein with a ATP binding domain similar to that of the Hsp70/actin/sugar kinase superfamily. Four negative regulatory factors, Lst8p, Mks1p, and two redundant 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1/2p, function between Rtg2p and Rtg1/3p. Alternative interaction between Mks1p and Rtg2p or Bmh1/2p provides a means for regulation of the RTG pathway. When the RTG pathway is on, Mks1p is inactivated by its association with Rtg2p; and when the RTG pathway is off, Mks1p dissociates from Rtg2p and forms a complex with Bmh1/2p, which is the negative regulatory form of Mks1p. Here we show that Rtg2p and Mks1p can interact in the absence of other factors, and is thereby the minimal binary switch for regulation of the RTG pathway. Gel filtration experiments indicate that both Rtg2p and Mks1p exist in high molecular weight complexes. In response to changes in the activity of the RTG pathway, both Rtg2p and Mks1p shift to different sized high molecular weight complexes. Together, our data suggest that dynamic association between Mks1p and Rtg2p in high molecular weight complexes provides a means to regulate the RTG pathway.[1]


  1. Interaction between Rtg2p and Mks1p in the regulation of the RTG pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ferreira Júnior, J.R., Spírek, M., Liu, Z., Butow, R.A. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
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