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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Gargling with sodium azulene sulfonate reduces the postoperative sore throat after intubation of the trachea.

Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a complication that remains to be resolved in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation. In this study, we investigated whether preoperative gargling with sodium 1,4-dimethyl-7-isopropylazulene-3-sulfonate monohydrate (sodium azulene sulfonate, Azunol) reduces POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into Azunol and control groups. In the Azunol group, patients gargled with 4 mg Azunol diluted with 100 mL tap water (40 microg/mL). In the control group, patients gargled with 100 mL of tap water. After emergence from general anesthesia, the patients with POST were counted and POST was evaluated using a verbal analog pain scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups by age, height, body weight, gender distribution, or duration of anesthesia and surgery. In the control group, 13 patients (65%) complained of POST, which remained 24 h later in nine patients (45%). In the Azunol group, five patients (25%) also complained of POST, which completely disappeared by 24 h later. The incidence of POST and verbal analog pain scale scores in the Azunol group decreased significantly compared with the control group. We demonstrated that gargling with Azunol effectively attenuated POST with no adverse reactions.[1]


  1. Gargling with sodium azulene sulfonate reduces the postoperative sore throat after intubation of the trachea. Ogata, J., Minami, K., Horishita, T., Shiraishi, M., Okamoto, T., Terada, T., Sata, T. Anesth. Analg. (2005) [Pubmed]
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