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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta functions to specify gene-specific, NF-kappaB-dependent transcription.

Loss of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) in mice results in embryonic lethality via hepatocyte apoptosis. Consistent with this result, cells from these mice have diminished nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity, implying a functional role for GSK-3beta in regulating NF-kappaB. Here, we have explored mechanisms by which GSK-3beta may control NF-kappaB function. We show that cytokine-induced IkappaB kinase activity and subsequent phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, p105, and p65 are not affected by the absence of GSK-3beta activity. Furthermore, nuclear accumulation of p65 following tumor necrosis factor treatment is unaffected by the loss of GSK-3beta. However, NF-kappaB DNA binding activity is reduced in GSK-3beta null cells and in cells treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of GSK-3. Expression of certain NF-kappaB-regulated genes, such as IkappaBalpha and macrophage inflammatory protein 2, is minimally affected by the absence of GSK-3beta. Conversely, we have identified a subset of NF-kappaB-regulated genes, including those for interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, that require GSK-3beta for efficient expression. We show that efficient localization of p65 to the promoter regions of the interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 genes following tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment requires GSK-3beta. Therefore, GSK-3beta has profound effects on transcription in a gene-specific manner through a mechanism involving control of promoter-specific recruitment of NF-kappaB.[1]


  1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta functions to specify gene-specific, NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Steinbrecher, K.A., Wilson, W., Cogswell, P.C., Baldwin, A.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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