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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 in cartilage and bone cells during endochondral ossification in the chick.

The localization of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 was studied in the growth plate, epiphysis and metaphysis of the tibiotarsus of three-week-old chicks. The different TGF-beta isoforms were localized to hypertrophic chondrocytes, chondroclasts, osteoblasts and osteoclasts using immunohistochemical staining analysis with specific TGF-beta antibodies. TGF-betas in osteoclasts and chondroclasts were restricted to those cells located on the respective matrices. TGF-beta 3 localization was mainly cytoplasmic in the transitional (early hypertrophic) chondrocytes, but nuclear staining was also detected in some proliferating chondrocytes. The cell-specific localization of these TGF-beta isoforms supports the hypothesis that TGF-beta has a role in the coupling of new bone formation to bone and cartilage matrix resorption during osteochondral development and suggests that TGF-beta may be a marker of chondrocyte differentiation. TGF-beta localization preceded a marked increase in type II collagen mRNA expression in transitional chondrocytes, suggesting a role for TGF-beta in the induction of synthesis of extracellular matrix.[1]


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