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Gene Review

TGFB3  -  transforming growth factor, beta 3

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of TGFB3


High impact information on TGFB3

  • TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3 and the ligand-binding TGF-beta receptor can be detected immunocytochemically in the central retina, a region where apoptosis is most prominent during the early period of PCD [3].
  • TGF-beta 3 localization was mainly cytoplasmic in the transitional (early hypertrophic) chondrocytes, but nuclear staining was also detected in some proliferating chondrocytes [4].
  • Except for 32 base pairs of identity centered around the TATA box and CRE site and four other relatively small regions of identity, the chicken TGF-beta 3 promoter was found to be structurally very different from the human TGF-beta 3 promoter [5].
  • In this study we investigated whether signalling by TGF-beta3 and Wnt-5a cross-talk during chondrogenic differentiation of chick wing mesenchyme [6].
  • Inactivation of PKC-alpha and p38 MAPK by specific inhibitors abrogated chondrogenesis stimulated by both TGF-beta3 and Wnt-5a [6].

Biological context of TGFB3


Anatomical context of TGFB3


Regulatory relationships of TGFB3

  • Overexpression of Wnt-5a or treatment with TGF-beta3 stimulated the activation of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), both positive regulators of chondrogenic differentiation [6].

Other interactions of TGFB3

  • These observations suggest that TGF-beta 3 and BMP-2 may be acting in a sequential manner to regulate chick limb mesenchymal cells through the different stages of cartilage differentiation [13].
  • The levels of expression of mRNA for GAPDH, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 were similar in the two groups, but the expression of TGF-beta 3 mRNA was significantly reduced in the samples from the dyschondroplastic growth plates [1].
  • 9. The profile for chicken recombinant latent TGF-beta 3 is slightly shifted with activation between pH 3.1 and 2.5, and between pH 10.0 and 12 [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TGFB3


  1. Expression of the gene for transforming growth factor-beta in avian dyschondroplasia. Law, A.S., Burt, D.W., Alexander, I., Thorp, B.H. Res. Vet. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Association of INOS, TRAIL, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and IgL genes with response to Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Malek, M., Lamont, S.J. Genet. Sel. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. TGF-beta modulates programmed cell death in the retina of the developing chick embryo. Dünker, N., Schuster, N., Krieglstein, K. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 in cartilage and bone cells during endochondral ossification in the chick. Thorp, B.H., Anderson, I., Jakowlew, S.B. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and characterization of the chicken transforming growth factor-beta 3 promoter. Jakowlew, S.B., Lechleider, R., Geiser, A.G., Kim, S.J., Santa-Coloma, T.A., Cubert, J., Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Wnt-5a is involved in TGF-beta3-stimulated chondrogenic differentiation of chick wing bud mesenchymal cells. Jin, E.J., Park, J.H., Lee, S.Y., Chun, J.S., Bang, O.S., Kang, S.S. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of transforming growth factor beta genes with quantitative trait loci for antibody response kinetics in hens. Zhou, H., Lamont, S.J. Anim. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The chicken transforming growth factor-beta 3 gene: genomic structure, transcriptional analysis, and chromosomal location. Burt, D.W., Dey, B.R., Paton, I.R., Morrice, D.R., Law, A.S. DNA Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative analysis of human and chicken transforming growth factor-beta 2 and -beta 3 promoters. Burt, D.W., Paton, I.R., Dey, B.R. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta s 1-4 in chicken embryo chondrocytes and myocytes. Jakowlew, S.B., Dillard, P.J., Winokur, T.S., Flanders, K.C., Sporn, M.B., Roberts, A.B. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Production of the transforming growth factor-beta binding protein endoglin is regulated during chick heart development. Vincent, E.B., Runyan, R.B., Weeks, D.L. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression, localization, and function of transforming growth factor-beta s in embryonic chick spinal cord, hindbrain, and dorsal root ganglia. Unsicker, K., Meier, C., Krieglstein, K., Sartor, B.M., Flanders, K.C. J. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein-2 act by distinct mechanisms to promote chick limb cartilage differentiation in vitro. Roark, E.F., Greer, K. Dev. Dyn. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Physicochemical activation of recombinant latent transforming growth factor-beta's 1, 2, and 3. Brown, P.D., Wakefield, L.M., Levinson, A.D., Sporn, M.B. Growth Factors (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of transforming growth factor beta in the embryonic avian lens coincides with the presence of mitochondria. Potts, J.D., Bassnett, S., Beebe, D.C. Dev. Dyn. (1995) [Pubmed]
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