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Disease relevance of Epiphyses


Psychiatry related information on Epiphyses


High impact information on Epiphyses

  • External oscillating electric fields (1166 volts per centimeter, 5 hertz) enhanced the incorporation of [3H] thymidine into the DNA of chondrocytes isolated from the proliferative layer of embryonic (16 days) chick epiphysis [7].
  • We show that mbl is required to prevent the expression of flh in dorsal forebrain cells rostral to the epiphysis [8].
  • We show that the homeobox containing gene floating head (flh) is required for neurogenesis to proceed in the epiphysis [8].
  • Homozygous mutations in IHH cause acrocapitofemoral dysplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder with cone-shaped epiphyses in hands and hips [9].
  • When transplanted into lethally irradiated mice, single gene-marked murine SP cells reconstituted depleted osteoprogenitor pools, such that a large proportion of the osteogenic cells in the epiphysis of long bone carried the donor SP cell marker [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Epiphyses


Biological context of Epiphyses


Anatomical context of Epiphyses

  • The composition of growth plate cartilage changes markedly from the epiphysis to the metaphysis, notably with the loss of type II collagen, concomitant with an increase in MMP-13; type X collagen; and the C-propeptide of type II collagen [21].
  • In the femoral epiphysis of juvenile mice, stromal cell processes full of Cx43 enmeshed three to six layers of hematopoietic cells near the endosteum [22].
  • The overall expression pattern of CNOT2 in Hensen's node, notochord, neural plate, tailbud, and epiphysis resembled the CNOT1 pattern [23].
  • Effects of risedronate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone or in combination on the distal tibia, a non-growing bone site with closed epiphysis at 3 months of age, were studied in ovariectomized (ovx) rats [24].
  • Evidence is offered that thyroxine augments the effect of growth hormone on the mandibular condyle just as at other osteogenetic centers, for example proximal tibial epiphysis in hypophysectomized rats [25].

Associations of Epiphyses with chemical compounds

  • No effects were found on the hydrodynamic size of the PG aggregates or monomers, but in the epiphyses ICF increased the size of the chondroitin sulfate chains [26].
  • Studies were performed to examine the creatine kinase isozyme profile of cells of the epiphysis [27].
  • The primary endpoint was defined as the effect over 24 months of alendronate and calcium compared with calcium alone on the BMD values at the distal tibial epiphysis (as a surrogate for trabecular bone in the paralyzed zone) [28].
  • This study assessed change in the structure of trabecular bone of the distal femoral epiphysis after induction of EIA, using a measure of "fractal dimension," which may be considered a quantitative description of the degree of irregularity of complex surfaces [29].
  • Chondrocytes derived from the epiphyses of long bones of fetal calves were treated with 5-azacytidine (aza-C) for 48 h [30].

Gene context of Epiphyses

  • In young epiphyses, both fibromodulin and decorin were found interterritorially, mainly in the uncalcified and deep-calcified cartilage [31].
  • Dach1 also colocalized with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 (Kip1) and p57 (Kip2) in chondrocytes of the growth plate and in the epiphysis before the formation of the secondary ossification center [32].
  • VEGF could be immunolocalized intracellularly in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate and in the chondrocytes around cartilage canals of the epiphysis, respectively [33].
  • The data demonstrated that the patients with type IX collagen defects had more severe joint involvement at the knees and relative hip sparing, while the patients with COMP mutations had significant involvement at the capital femoral epiphyses and irregular acetabuli [34].
  • The expression of emx1 is first detected around the 10-somite stage in the pineal gland (epiphysis) primodium in the developing anterior brain and in the pronephric primodium within the intermediate mesoderm. emx1 expression in the epiphysis has not been reported in other species [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Epiphyses


  1. Autosomal recessive disorder otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the COL11A2 gene. Melkoniemi, M., Brunner, H.G., Manouvrier, S., Hennekam, R., Superti-Furga, A., Kääriäinen, H., Pauli, R.M., van Essen, T., Warman, M.L., Bonaventure, J., Miny, P., Ala-Kokko, L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. A type II collagen mutation also results in oto-spondylo-megaepiphyseal dysplasia. Miyamoto, Y., Nakashima, E., Hiraoka, H., Ohashi, H., Ikegawa, S. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Estrogens and bone health in men. Khosla, S., Melton, L.J., Riggs, B.L. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata: a peroxisomal disorder? Wilson, C.J., Aftimos, S. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. [99mTc]diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in experimental arthritis: effect of naproxen in the canine carrageenan injection model. Hansen, E.S., He, S.Z., Søballe, K., Kjølseth, D., Henriksen, T.B., Hjortdal, V.E., Bünger, C. J. Orthop. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Multiple exostoses-mental retardation syndrome. A case report and review of the literature. Mirovsky, Y., Halperin, N., Copeliovitch, L., Tieder, M. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. DNA synthesis in cartilage cells is stimulated by oscillating electric fields. Rodan, G.A., Bourret, L.A., Norton, L.A. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. floating head and masterblind regulate neuronal patterning in the roof of the forebrain. Masai, I., Heisenberg, C.P., Barth, K.A., Macdonald, R., Adamek, S., Wilson, S.W. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Homozygous mutations in IHH cause acrocapitofemoral dysplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder with cone-shaped epiphyses in hands and hips. Hellemans, J., Coucke, P.J., Giedion, A., De Paepe, A., Kramer, P., Beemer, F., Mortier, G.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Primitive adult hematopoietic stem cells can function as osteoblast precursors. Olmsted-Davis, E.A., Gugala, Z., Camargo, F., Gannon, F.H., Jackson, K., Kienstra, K.A., Shine, H.D., Lindsey, R.W., Hirschi, K.K., Goodell, M.A., Brenner, M.K., Davis, A.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Estrogens and health in males. Lombardi, G., Zarrilli, S., Colao, A., Paesano, L., Di Somma, C., Rossi, F., De Rosa, M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging demonstrates abduction-caused hip ischemia and its reversal in piglets. Jaramillo, D., Villegas-Medina, O.L., Doty, D.K., Dwek, J.R., Ransil, B.J., Mulkern, R.V., Shapiro, F. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Congenital hypothyroidism in a dog due to an iodide organification defect. Chastain, C.B., McNeel, S.V., Graham, C.L., Pezzanite, S.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Skeletal complications in pediatric oncology patients. Roebuck, D.J. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia in the distal femur and patella of pediatric patients and young adults: MR imaging appearance. Chan, Y., Li, C., Chu, W.C., Pang, L., Cheng, J.C., Chik, K.W. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Regional alterations of type I collagen in rat tibia induced by skeletal unloading. Shiiba, M., Arnaud, S.B., Tanzawa, H., Kitamura, E., Yamauchi, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Altered postnatal expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and type X collagen preceding the Perthes' disease-like lesion of a rat model. Kikkawa, M., Imai, S., Hukuda, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of continuous alendronate treatment on bone mass and mechanical properties in ovariectomized rats: comparison with pamidronate and etidronate in growing rats. Azuma, Y., Oue, Y., Kanatani, H., Ohta, T., Kiyoki, M., Komoriya, K. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Sonographic assessment of the distal femoral and proximal tibial ossification centers in the prediction of pulmonic maturity in normal women and women with diabetes. Goldstein, I., Lockwood, C.J., Reece, E.A., Hobbins, J.C. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmentally regulated alternative splicing of the alpha1(XI) collagen chain: spatial and temporal segregation of isoforms in the cartilage of fetal rat long bones. Morris, N.P., Oxford, J.T., Davies, G.B., Smoody, B.F., Keene, D.R. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Matrix metalloproteinases are not essential for aggrecan turnover during normal skeletal growth and development. Little, C.B., Meeker, C.T., Hembry, R.M., Sims, N.A., Lawlor, K.E., Golub, S.B., Last, K., Fosang, A.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation. Krenacs, T., Rosendaal, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential activation of the clustered homeobox genes CNOT2 and CNOT1 during notogenesis in the chick. Stein, S., Niss, K., Kessel, M. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Risedronate plus prostaglandin E2 is superior to prostaglandin E2 alone in maintaining the added bone after withdrawal in a non-growing bone site in ovariectomized rats. Liang, H.H., Ma, Y.F., Jee, W.S., Pan, Z., Setterberg, R.B., McOsker, J.E., Li, X.J. Bone (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of growth hormone and thyroxine on endochondral osteogenesis in the mandibular condyle and proximal tibial epiphysis. Hoskins, W.E., Asling, C.W. J. Dent. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Influence of intermittent compressive force on proteoglycan content in calcifying growth plate cartilage in vitro. Klein-Nulend, J., Veldhuijzen, J.P., van de Stadt, R.J., van Kampen, G.P., Kuijer, R., Burger, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Developmental regulation of creatine kinase activity in cells of the epiphyseal growth cartilage. Shapiro, I.M., Debolt, K., Funanage, V.L., Smith, S.M., Tuan, R.S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Prevention of bone loss in paraplegics over 2 years with alendronate. Zehnder, Y., Risi, S., Michel, D., Knecht, H., Perrelet, R., Kraenzlin, M., Zäch, G.A., Lippuner, K. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Fractal dimension as a measure of altered trabecular bone in experimental inflammatory arthritis. Caldwell, C.B., Moran, E.L., Bogoch, E.R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. A novel cell culture model of chondrocyte differentiation during mammalian endochondral ossification. Cheung, J.O., Hillarby, M.C., Ayad, S., Hoyland, J.A., Jones, C.J., Denton, J., Thomas, J.T., Wallis, G.A., Grant, M.E. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Murine fibromodulin: cDNA and genomic structure, and age-related expression and distribution in the knee joint. Säämänen, A.M., Salminen, H.J., Rantakokko, A.J., Heinegård, D., Vuorio, E.I. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Fibroblast growth factor signaling regulates Dach1 expression during skeletal development. Horner, A., Shum, L., Ayres, J.A., Nonaka, K., Nuckolls, G.H. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Expression of VEGF121 and VEGF165 in hypertrophic chondrocytes of the human growth plate and epiphyseal cartilage. Petersen, W., Tsokos, M., Pufe, T. J. Anat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: radiographic abnormalities correlated with genotype. Unger, S.L., Briggs, M.D., Holden, P., Zabel, B., Ala-Kokko, L., Paassilta, P., Lohiniva, J., Rimoin, D.L., Lachman, R.S., Cohn, D.H. Pediatric radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Developmental expression of zebrafish emx1 during early embryogenesis. Kawahara, A., Dawid, I.B. Gene Expr. Patterns (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide expression in the epiphyseal growth plate of the juvenile chicken: evidence for the origin of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide found in the epiphyseal growth plate. Medill, N.J., Praul, C.A., Ford, B.C., Leach, R.M. J. Cell. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Combined clonidine-short-ACTH test for the simultaneous assessment of growth hormone reserve and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity in children. Weintrob, N., Sprecher, E., Josefsberg, Z., Vardi, P., Weininger, C., Aurbach-Klipper, Y., Pertzelan, A., Phillip, M. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Stromal cell activity in bone marrow from the tibia and iliac crest of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Suzuki, Y., Kim, K.J., Kotake, S., Itoh, T. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. The effect of constant light and chemical sympathectomy on the development of serotonin, n-acetyltransferase and monoamine oxidase activities in the rat epiphyses. Illnerova, H. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca. (1975) [Pubmed]
  40. Evaluation of locally induced osteoarthritis by the complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant in mice. The application of DEXA measurements. Włodarski, K.H., Dickson, G.R. Folia Biol. (Praha) (2002) [Pubmed]
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