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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Paradoxical anti-inflammatory actions of TNF-alpha: inhibition of IL-12 and IL-23 via TNF receptor 1 in macrophages and dendritic cells.

IL-12 and TNF-alpha are central proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages and dendritic cells. Disregulation of TNF-alpha is associated with sepsis and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, new evidence suggests an anti-inflammatory role for TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha-treated murine macrophages produced less IL-12p70 and IL-23, after stimulation with IFN-gamma and LPS. Frequency of IL-12p40-producing macrophages correspondingly decreased as measured by intracellular cytokine staining. IL-12p40 production was also inhibited in dendritic cells. TNFR1 was established as the main receptor involved in IL-12p40 regulation, because IL-12p40 levels were not affected by TNF-alpha in TNFR1(-/-)-derived macrophages. Macrophages activated during Listeria monocytogenes infection were more susceptible to inhibition by TNF-alpha than cells from naive animals, which suggests a regulatory role for TNF-alpha in later stages of infection. This nonapoptotic anti-inflammatory regulation of IL-12 and IL-23 is an important addition to the multitude of TNF-alpha-induced responses determined by cell-specific receptor signaling.[1]


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