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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hyaluronan forms complexes with low density lipoprotein while also inducing foam cell infiltration in the dermis.

BACKGROUND: Xanthoma is a foam cell infiltrating lesion similar to atherosclerosis. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans have long been considered to play a role in atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of hyaluronan, the main dermal glycosaminoglycan, in xanthoma formation. METHODS: The complex formation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with hyaluronan was investigated by assaying the cholesterol level of precipitates that were formed by incubating LDL, hyaluronan and cetylpyridinium chloride in the presence of Ca2+. The uptake of LDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages was studied by assaying the cellular cholesterol esterification activity. The responsible receptor for the LDL internalization was examined by saturating hyaluronan receptor and blocking class A macrophage scavenger receptor (CD204). Hyaluronan was injected into the dorsal skin of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits to reveal the xanthoma inducing activity of hyaluronan. RESULTS: Cetylpyridinium chloride precipitated hyaluronan, which had formed complexes with LDL. The macrophages incorporated hyaluronan-LDL complexes and oxidized LDL via CD204. Foam cell infiltration and cholesterol accumulation were induced by intradermal injections of hyaluronan in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. CONCLUSION: Hyaluronan, like other sulfated glycosaminoglycans, retains LDL by forming a complex. Via macrophage scavenger receptors, macrophages incorporate not only LDL-hyaluronan complexes, but also oxidized LDL, which has been oxidized during the retention time.[1]


  1. Hyaluronan forms complexes with low density lipoprotein while also inducing foam cell infiltration in the dermis. Seike, M., Ikeda, M., Matsumoto, M., Hamada, R., Takeya, M., Kodama, H. J. Dermatol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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