The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

MSR1  -  macrophage scavenger receptor 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD204, Macrophage acetylated LDL receptor I and II, Macrophage scavenger receptor types I and II, SCARA1, SR-A, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of MSR1


Psychiatry related information on MSR1


High impact information on MSR1


Chemical compound and disease context of MSR1


Biological context of MSR1

  • To date, germline mutations have been found in three candidate genes for hereditary prostate cancer: ELAC2 at 17p11, RNASEL at 1q25 and MSR1 at 8p22 [13].
  • We observed significant differences in ELAC2, RNASEL, and MSR1 allele frequencies by race [14].
  • These proteins interact with the cytoplasmic domain directly and may have an effect on the functions of MSR such as internalization, cell-surface expression, and signal transduction [15].
  • Nevertheless, the low frequencies of deleterious alleles, in addition to an apparently moderate penetrance, does not support MSR1 as a major susceptibility gene in this family sample [16].
  • Further studies may focus on alternative mechanisms through which the MSR1 gene might be inactivated, such as aberrant DNA methylation, and/or pursue analyses of other genes on 8p21-23 for mutational events [2].

Anatomical context of MSR1


Associations of MSR1 with chemical compounds

  • High glucose-enhanced SR-A expression was prevented by protein kinase C and NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors as well as antioxidants [20].
  • The in vivo experiments demonstrated that peritoneal macrophages from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice increased SR-A expression when compared with those from nondiabetic mice [20].
  • Inhibitors of tyrosine kinase dramatically reduced MSR-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and PKC activity [21].
  • Our observations point to the conclusion that the reduction of SR-A expression and activity in presence of alpha-tocopherol is possibly related to its direct action on cell signaling [22].
  • Interestingly, gamma-tocopherol, which is a homologue of alpha-tocopherol with a comparable antioxidative capacity, showed only a weak suppression of SR activity, SR-A expression and AP-1 activity [22].

Regulatory relationships of MSR1


Other interactions of MSR1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MSR1

  • Meta-analyses revealed significant associations of prostate cancer with MSR1 IVS7delTTA, -14,742 A>G, and Arg293X in European Americans; Asp174Tyr in African Americans; RNASEL Arg462Gln in European American's overall and in family history-negative disease; and Glu265X in family history-positive European Americans [14].
  • In this context, we evaluated the association of germ-line mutations and common MSR1 sequence variants with prostate cancer risk in a case control study of a community-based sample of 134 African-American men with prostate cancer and 340 unaffected controls [30].
  • Nevertheless, the panel of intronic PCR primer pair sequences presented here will facilitate future studies to determine the full spectrum and frequency of genetic events that may affect expression/activity of the MSR1 gene in human tumors [2].
  • We have cloned an 80-kilobase human MSR gene and localized it to band p22 on chromosome 8 by fluorescent in situ hybridization and by genetic linkage using three common restriction fragment length polymorphisms [31].
  • Metabolic labeling/immunoprecipitation experiments showed that most of the macrophage scavenger receptor protein expressed by P388D1 cells was the N-glycosylated type II receptor; only small amounts of type I receptor were detected [32].


  1. Mutational analysis of susceptibility genes RNASEL/HPC1, ELAC2/HPC2, and MSR1 in sporadic prostate cancer. Nupponen, N.N., Wallén, M.J., Ponciano, D., Robbins, C.M., Tammela, T.L., Vessella, R.L., Carpten, J.D., Visakorpi, T. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutational analysis of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) gene in primary lung cancer. Yoshimura, A., Gemma, A., Kataoka, K., Hosoya, Y., Noro, R., Seike, M., Kokubo, Y., Watanabe, M., Kudoh, S. Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nihon Ika Daigaku zasshi. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. A naturally occurring isoform of the human macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) gene generated by alternative splicing blocks modified LDL uptake. Gough, P.J., Greaves, D.R., Gordon, S. J. Lipid Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Production, characterization, and interspecies reactivities of monoclonal antibodies against human class A macrophage scavenger receptors. Tomokiyo, R., Jinnouchi, K., Honda, M., Wada, Y., Hanada, N., Hiraoka, T., Suzuki, H., Kodama, T., Takahashi, K., Takeya, M. Atherosclerosis (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced infiltration of class A scavenger receptor positive antigen-presenting cells is associated with prostate cancer progression. Yang, G., Addai, J., Tian, W.H., Frolov, A., Wheeler, T.M., Thompson, T.C. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. No association of germline alteration of MSR1 with prostate cancer risk. Wang, L., McDonnell, S.K., Cunningham, J.M., Hebbring, S., Jacobsen, S.J., Cerhan, J.R., Slager, S.L., Blute, M.L., Schaid, D.J., Thibodeau, S.N. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Germline mutations and sequence variants of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk. Xu, J., Zheng, S.L., Komiya, A., Mychaleckyj, J.C., Isaacs, S.D., Hu, J.J., Sterling, D., Lange, E.M., Hawkins, G.A., Turner, A., Ewing, C.M., Faith, D.A., Johnson, J.R., Suzuki, H., Bujnovszky, P., Wiley, K.E., DeMarzo, A.M., Bova, G.S., Chang, B., Hall, M.C., McCullough, D.L., Partin, A.W., Kassabian, V.S., Carpten, J.D., Bailey-Wilson, J.E., Trent, J.M., Ohar, J., Bleecker, E.R., Walsh, P.C., Isaacs, W.B., Meyers, D.A. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activators induce cholesterol removal from human macrophage foam cells through stimulation of the ABCA1 pathway. Chinetti, G., Lestavel, S., Bocher, V., Remaley, A.T., Neve, B., Torra, I.P., Teissier, E., Minnich, A., Jaye, M., Duverger, N., Brewer, H.B., Fruchart, J.C., Clavey, V., Staels, B. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. A link between diabetes and atherosclerosis: Glucose regulates expression of CD36 at the level of translation. Griffin, E., Re, A., Hamel, N., Fu, C., Bush, H., McCaffrey, T., Asch, A.S. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Macrophage-colony-stimulating factor selectively enhances macrophage scavenger receptor expression and function. de Villiers, W.J., Fraser, I.P., Hughes, D.A., Doyle, A.G., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibits scavenger receptor activity in THP-1 human macrophages. Bottalico, L.A., Wager, R.E., Agellon, L.B., Assoian, R.K., Tabas, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The apoprotein is the preferential target for peroxynitrite-induced LDL damage protection by dietary phenolic acids. Dinis, T.C., Santosa, C.L., Almeida, L.M. Free Radic. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutation screening and association study of RNASEL as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. Maier, C., Haeusler, J., Herkommer, K., Vesovic, Z., Hoegel, J., Vogel, W., Paiss, T. Br. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Association of susceptibility alleles in ELAC2/HPC2, RNASEL/HPC1, and MSR1 with prostate cancer severity in European American and African American men. Rennert, H., Zeigler-Johnson, C.M., Addya, K., Finley, M.J., Walker, A.H., Spangler, E., Leonard, D.G., Wein, A., Malkowicz, S.B., Rebbeck, T.R. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. HSP90, HSP70, and GAPDH directly interact with the cytoplasmic domain of macrophage scavenger receptors. Nakamura, T., Hinagata, J., Tanaka, T., Imanishi, T., Wada, Y., Kodama, T., Doi, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Germline mutations of the MSR1 gene in prostate cancer families from Germany. Maier, C., Vesovic, Z., Bachmann, N., Herkommer, K., Braun, A.K., Surowy, H.M., Assum, G., Paiss, T., Vogel, W. Hum. Mutat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Macrophage specific overexpression of the human macrophage scavenger receptor in transgenic mice, using a 180-kb yeast artificial chromosome, leads to enhanced foam cell formation of isolated peritoneal macrophages. de Winther, M.P., van Dijk, K.W., van Vlijmen, B.J., Gijbels, M.J., Heus, J.J., Wijers, E.R., van den Bos, A.C., Breuer, M., Frants, R.R., Havekes, L.M., Hofker, M.H. Atherosclerosis (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of human scavenger receptor class A overexpression in bone marrow-derived cells on cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Van Eck, M., De Winther, M.P., Herijgers, N., Havekes, L.M., Hofker, M.H., Groot, P.H., Van Berkel, T.J. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Transgenic mouse models to study the role of the macrophage scavenger receptor class A in atherosclerosis. De Winther, M.P., Gijbels, M.J., Van Dijk, K.W., Havekes, L.M., Hofker, M.H. International journal of tissue reactions. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of class A scavenger receptor is enhanced by high glucose in vitro and under diabetic conditions in vivo: one mechanism for an increased rate of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Fukuhara-Takaki, K., Sakai, M., Sakamoto, Y., Takeya, M., Horiuchi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Ligand binding to macrophage scavenger receptor-A induces urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression by a protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway. Hsu, H.Y., Hajjar, D.P., Khan, K.M., Falcone, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Alpha-tocopherol down-regulates scavenger receptor activity in macrophages. Teupser, D., Thiery, J., Seidel, D. Atherosclerosis (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. A Unique Loop Extension in the Serine Protease Domain of Haptoglobin Is Essential for CD163 Recognition of the Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex. Nielsen, M.J., Petersen, S.V., Jacobsen, C., Thirup, S., Enghild, J.J., Graversen, J.H., Moestrup, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Combinatorial interactions between AP-1 and ets domain proteins contribute to the developmental regulation of the macrophage scavenger receptor gene. Wu, H., Moulton, K., Horvai, A., Parik, S., Glass, C.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of macrophage scavenger receptor activity by tumor necrosis factor-alpha is transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated. Hsu, H.Y., Nicholson, A.C., Hajjar, D.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. The complex genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer. Schaid, D.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Genome-wide scan for prostate cancer susceptibility genes using families from the University of Michigan prostate cancer genetics project finds evidence for linkage on chromosome 17 near BRCA1. Lange, E.M., Gillanders, E.M., Davis, C.C., Brown, W.M., Campbell, J.K., Jones, M., Gildea, D., Riedesel, E., Albertus, J., Freas-Lutz, D., Markey, C., Giri, V., Dimmer, J.B., Montie, J.E., Trent, J.M., Cooney, K.A. Prostate (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Mutation screening and association study of the candidate prostate cancer susceptibility genes MSR1, PTEN, and KLF6. Bar-Shira, A., Matarasso, N., Rosner, S., Bercovich, D., Matzkin, H., Orr-Urtreger, A. Prostate (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Germ-line alterations in MSR1 gene and prostate cancer risk. Seppälä, E.H., Ikonen, T., Autio, V., Rökman, A., Mononen, N., Matikainen, M.P., Tammela, T.L., Schleutker, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Germ-line mutations of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 gene: association with prostate cancer risk in African-American men. Miller, D.C., Zheng, S.L., Dunn, R.L., Sarma, A.V., Montie, J.E., Lange, E.M., Meyers, D.A., Xu, J., Cooney, K.A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human macrophage scavenger receptor gene. Emi, M., Asaoka, H., Matsumoto, A., Itakura, H., Kurihara, Y., Wada, Y., Kanamori, H., Yazaki, Y., Takahashi, E., Lepert, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Structures and high and low affinity ligand binding properties of murine type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors. Ashkenas, J., Penman, M., Vasile, E., Acton, S., Freeman, M., Krieger, M. J. Lipid Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities