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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Activation of the Keap1/ Nrf2 pathway for neuroprotection by electrophilic [correction of electrophillic] phase II inducers.

Electrophilic neurite outgrowth-promoting prostaglandin ( NEPP) compounds protect neurons from oxidative insults. At least part of the neuroprotective action of NEPPs lies in induction of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which, along with other phase II enzymes, serve as a defense system against oxidative stress. Here, we found that, by using fluorescent tags and immunoprecipitation assays, NEPPs are taken up preferentially into neurons and bind in a thiol-dependent manner to Keap1, a negative regulator of the transcription factor Nrf2. By binding to Keap1, NEPPs prevent Keap1- mediated inactivation of Nrf2 and, thus, enhance Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus of cultured neuronal cells. In turn, Nrf2 binds to antioxidant/electrophile-responsive elements of the HO-1 promoter to induce HO-1 expression. Consistent with this notion, NEPP induction of an HO-1 reporter construct is prevented if the antioxidant-responsive elements are mutated. We show that NEPPs are neuroprotective both in vitro from glutamate-related excitotoxicity and in vivo in a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (stroke). Our results suggest that NEPPs prevent excitotoxicity by activating the Keap1/ Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Because NEPPs accumulate preferentially in neurons, they may provide a category of neuroprotective compounds, distinct from other electrophilic compounds such as tert-butylhydroquinone, which activates the antioxidant-responsive element in astrocytes. NEPPs thus represent a therapeutic approach for stroke and neurodegenerative disorders.[1]

References

  1. Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway for neuroprotection by electrophilic [correction of electrophillic] phase II inducers. Satoh, T., Okamoto, S.I., Cui, J., Watanabe, Y., Furuta, K., Suzuki, M., Tohyama, K., Lipton, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
 
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