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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ingested delphinidin-3-rutinoside is primarily excreted to urine as the intact form and to bile as the methylated form in rats.

Many reports have described the bioavailability of anthocyanins; however, most of these reports investigated only the amount of anthocyanins excreted in urine. In the present study, we calculated the pharmacokinetic bioavailability of anthocyanins in rats by measuring the plasma concentration of delphinidin-3-rutinoside that had been administered orally or intravenously. Delphinidin-3-rutinoside was primarily absorbed in the blood and excreted into urine as unmetabolized forms with a T(max) of 26.3 min and a C(max) of 0.285 +/- 0.071 micromol/L. We detected small amounts of the metabolite 4'-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-rutinoside in the plasma, but we detected neither anthocyanidin (aglycone) nor glucuro- or sulfoconjugates. For the 8 h period after intake, delphinidin-3-rutinoside and 4'-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-rutinoside were excreted to urine at 795 +/- 375 and 12.3 +/- 2.91 nmol, respectively. Relative to intravenous injection, oral administration of delphinidin-3-rutinoside resulted in complete bioavailability (0.49 +/- 0.06%). Analysis of delphinidin-3-rutinoside plasma concentrations in bile cannulated rats revealed that, for the 8-h period after intake, the intact delphinidin-3-rutinoside excretion ratio in bile was 11% of the excretion ratio of 4'-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-rutinoside, 1.91 +/- 0.35 nmol versus 17.4 +/- 8.67 nmol, respectively. Setting the bile duct cannulation in a Bollman-type cage, however, significantly increased the bioavailability of orally administered delphinidin-3-rutinoside (18.14 +/- 6.24%). This effect appears to stem immobilization stress by reducing gastrointestinal motility. The cumulative excretion of delphinidin-3-rutinoside and 4'-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-rutinoside in urine and bile was 2.67 +/- 1.24% (w/w) of the dose ingested. Studies report that several metabolites are formed after oral ingestion of anthocyanins. Examples include glucuronyl from cyanidin-3-glucoside and both glucuronyl and sulfate conjugates from pelargonidin-3-glucoside. Our results indicate that delphinidin-3-rutinoside might be metabolized differently from cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside.[1]


  1. Ingested delphinidin-3-rutinoside is primarily excreted to urine as the intact form and to bile as the methylated form in rats. Matsumoto, H., Ichiyanagi, T., Iida, H., Ito, K., Tsuda, T., Hirayama, M., Konishi, T. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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