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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Salmonella enterica SpvB ADP-ribosylates actin at position arginine-177-characterization of the catalytic domain within the SpvB protein and a comparison to binary clostridial actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins.

The SpvB protein from Salmonella enterica was recently discovered as an actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin. SpvB is most likely delivered via a type-III secretion system into eukaryotic cells and does not have a binding/ translocation component. This is in contrast to the family of binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins from various Bacillus and Clostridium species. However, there are homologies in amino acid sequences between the C-terminal domain of SpvB and the catalytic domains of the actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins such as C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum and iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens. We compared the biochemical properties of the catalytic C-terminal domain of SpvB (C/SpvB) with the enzyme components of C2 toxin and iota toxin. The specificity of C/SpvB concerning the modification of G- or F-actin was comparable to the C2 and iota toxins, although there were distinct differences regarding the recognition of actin isoforms. C/SpvB and iota toxin modify both muscle alpha-actin and nonmuscle beta/gamma-actin, whereas C2 toxin only modifies beta/gamma-actin. In contrast to the iota and C2 toxins, C/SpvB possessed no detectable glycohydrolase activity in the absence of a protein substrate. The maximal reaction rates were comparable for all toxins, whereas variable K(m) values for NAD were evident. We identified arginine-177 as the modification site for C/SpvB with the actin homologue protein Act88F from Drosophila.[1]


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