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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacological sequestration of intracellular cholesterol in late endosomes disrupts ruffled border formation in osteoclasts.

We showed that the ruffled border lacks a late endosomal lipid, LBPA, but is enriched incholesterol. A hydrophobic amine, U18666A, causes cholesterol accumulation in LBPA+ late endosomes in osteoclasts. Specific targeting of cathepsin K and the vacuolar H+-ATPase at the ruffled border is blocked by U18666A. A membrane trafficking pathway from baso-lateral membrane toward the resorptive organelle is also arrested by the inhibitor. These results indicate cholesterol homeostasis regulates late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking and polarized secretion in resorbing osteoclasts. INTRODUCTION: Protons and acidic proteases are secreted into the resorption lacuna through the ruffled border to solubilize bone mineral and digest the organic bone matrix, respectively. Whereas evidence suggests this event occurs through a vesicular trafficking mechanism, this issue remains unresolved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distribution of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and cholesterol in resorbing osteoclasts was examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The effects of U18666A on ruffled border formation were observed by electron microscopy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ruffled border does not contain LBPA but is enriched in cholesterol. We found a hydrophobic amine, U18666A, which blocks the efflux of cholesterol from late endosomes in other cells, causes cholesterol accumulation in LBPA-containing late endosomes in osteoclasts, leading to diminished cholesterol at the ruffled border. Reflecting the U18666A-mediated inhibition of late endosome/lysosome transport, the resorptive membrane is disrupted and contains a paucity of cathepsin K and the vacuolar H+-ATPase. These results indicate that the ruffled border is formed by the fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane in osteoclasts through a process that is cholesterol regulated.[1]


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