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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evidence that phospholipase-C-dependent, calcium-independent mechanisms are required for directional migration of T-lymphocytes in response to the CCR4 ligands CCL17 and CCL22.

Macrophage-derived chemokine [CC chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22)] and thymus- and activation- regulated chemokine ( CCL17) mediate cellular effects, principally by binding to their receptor CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and together, constitute a multifunctional chemokine/receptor system with homeostatic and inflammatory roles within the body. This study demonstrates that CCL22 and CCL17 stimulate pertussis toxin-sensitive elevation of intracellular calcium in the CEM leukemic T cell line and human peripheral blood-derived T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) resulted in the abrogation of chemokine-mediated calcium mobilization. Chemokine-stimulated calcium responses were also abrogated completely by the inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptor-mediated calcium release. Chemotactic responses of CEM and human Th2 cells to CCL17 and CCL22 were similarly abrogated by inhibition of PLC and inhibition of novel, Ca2+-independent/diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. Inhibition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor-mediated calcium release from intracellular stores had no effect on chemotactic responses to CCR4 ligands. Taken together, this study provides compelling evidence of an important role for PLC and diacylglycerol-dependent effector mechanisms (most likely involving novel PKC isoforms) in CCL17- and CCL22-stimulated, directional cell migration. In this regard, CCL22 stimulates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-independent phosphorylation of the novel delta isoform of PKC at threonine 505, situated within its activation loop--an event closely associated with increased catalytic activity.[1]


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