The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyclophilin A Renders Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Sensitive to Old World Monkey but Not Human TRIM5{alpha} Antiviral Activity.

TRIM5alpha is an important mediator of antiretroviral innate immunity influencing species-specific retroviral replication. Here we investigate the role of the peptidyl prolyl isomerase enzyme cyclophilin A in TRIM5alpha antiviral activity. Cyclophilin A is recruited into nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions as well as incoming HIV-1 capsids, where it isomerizes an exposed proline residue. Here we show that cyclophilin A renders HIV-1 sensitive to restriction by TRIM5alpha in cells from Old World monkeys, African green monkey and rhesus macaque. Inhibition of cyclophilin A activity with cyclosporine A, or reducing cyclophilin A expression with small interfering RNA, rescues TRIM5alpha-restricted HIV-1 infectivity. The effect of cyclosporine A on HIV-1 infectivity is dependent on TRIM5alpha expression, and expression of simian TRIM5alpha in permissive feline cells renders them able to restrict HIV-1 in a cyclosporine A-sensitive way. We use an HIV-1 cyclophilin A binding mutant (CA G89V) to show that cyclophilin A has different roles in restriction by Old World monkey TRIM5alpha and owl monkey TRIM-Cyp. TRIM-Cyp, but not TRIM5alpha, recruits its tripartite motif to HIV-1 capsid via cyclophilin A and, therefore, HIV-1 G89V is insensitive to TRIM-Cyp but sensitive to TRIM5alpha. We propose that cyclophilin A isomerization of a proline residue in the TRIM5alpha sensitivity determinant of the HIV-1 capsid sensitizes it to restriction by Old World monkey TRIM5alpha. In humans, where HIV-1 has adapted to bypass TRIM5alpha activity, the effects of cyclosporine A are independent of TRIM5alpha. We speculate that cyclophilin A alters HIV-1 sensitivity to a TRIM5alpha-independent innate immune pathway in human cells.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities