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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of TOLL-like receptors ( TLR) by bovine antigen-presenting cells-potential role in pathogen discrimination?

Invading pathogens are controlled by the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Adaptive immunity, mediated by B and T lymphocytes, recognises pathogens via high affinity receptors. However, the establishment of a primary adaptive immune response is not rapid enough to eradicate invading microorganisms as it involves cell proliferation, gene activation and protein synthesis. More rapid defence mechanisms are provided by innate immunity, which recognises invading pathogens by germ-line-encoded pattern recognition receptors. Recent evidence shows that this recognition can mainly be attributed to the family of TOLL-like receptors ( TLR). Binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns to TLR induces the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and up-regulates expression of co-stimulatory molecules, subsequently initiating the adaptive immunity. In this paper, we will discuss the current knowledge with regards to the TLR, and in particular the bovine family of TLR. In addition, we will show the expression of TLR mRNA in bovine antigen-presenting cell subsets, summarise the discovery and the critical roles of TLR2 in host defence against Mycobacteria, and provide evidence for a mycobacteria species-specific response of bovine macrophages.[1]


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