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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and metabolite formation of fipronil and chiral legacy pesticides in rainbow trout.

To assess the fate of current-use pesticides, it is important to understand their bioaccumulation and biotransformation by aquatic biota. We examined the dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation of the chiral current-use pesticide fipronil, along with a mixture of selected chiral [alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), heptachlor epoxide (HEPX), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 84, 132, 174, o,p'-DDT, and o,p'-DDD] and nonchiral (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD) organochlorine compounds in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish rapidly accumulated all compounds, as measured in the carcass (whole body minus liver and GI tract) during the 32 d uptake phase, which was followed by varying elimination rates of the chemicals (half-lives (t1/2s) ranging from 0.6 d for fipronil to 77.0 d for PCB 174) during the 96 d depuration period. No biotransformation was observed for alpha-HCH, HEPX, PCB 174, o,p'-DDT, or o,p'-DDD based on consistent enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in the fish and their t1/2s falling on a log K(ow)--log t1/2 relationship established for recalcitrant contaminants in fish. p,p'-DDT and PCBs 84 and 132 were biotransformed based on the former's t1/2 position below the log K(ow)--log t1/2 relationship, and the PCBs change in EF. Fipronil was rapidly biotransformed, based on a change in EF, a t1/2 that fell below the log K(ow)--log t1//2 relationship, which accounted for 88% of its elimination, and the rapid formation of fipronil sulfone, a known metabolite. Fipronil sulfone was found to persist longer (t1/2 approximately 2 d) than its parent compound fipronil (t1/2 approximately 0.6 d) and needs to be considered in fate studies of fipronil. This research demonstrates the utilities of the log K(ow)--log t1/2 relationship as a mechanistic tool for quantifying biotransformation and of chiral analysis to measure biotransformation in fish.[1]


  1. Bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and metabolite formation of fipronil and chiral legacy pesticides in rainbow trout. Konwick, B.J., Garrison, A.W., Black, M.C., Avants, J.K., Fisk, A.T. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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