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Chemical Compound Review

Gammexane     1,2,3,4,5,6- hexachlorocyclohexane

Synonyms: Jacutin, Scabene, lindane, Kwell, Hexachlorane, ...
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Disease relevance of Hexachlorane


Psychiatry related information on Hexachlorane


High impact information on Hexachlorane


Chemical compound and disease context of Hexachlorane


Biological context of Hexachlorane


Anatomical context of Hexachlorane

  • The free radical scavenger DMSO or the gap junction inhibitor Lindane within the clusters significantly reduced the mutation incidence [17].
  • Based on daily doses the three HCH isomers were approximately equipotent; based on concentrations in liver or adipose tissue, gamma-HCH was severalfold more effective than alpha- and beta-HCH [18].
  • After alpha-BHC administration was stopped, many mesenchymal cells infiltrated the nodular hyperplastic lesions, and degenerated liver cells were found [19].
  • Both o,p'DDT and beta-HCH stimulated proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in the ER-positive cell lines MCF-7 and T47D but not in the ER-negative lines MDA-MB231, MDA-MB468, and HS578T [10].
  • The difference between wet and dry weights showed that fasting of beta-HCH-loaded animals also increased water imbibition in the uterus; there was no effect from fasting in the other groups [20].

Associations of Hexachlorane with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Hexachlorane

  • Disruption of autophagy at the maturation step by the carcinogen lindane is associated with the sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity [16].
  • Altogether, these findings provide the first evidence that Lindane-altered Cx43 endocytosis requires ERK activation [26].
  • Despite a comparable high dose lindane induction of cell cycle arrest, marked increases in expression of P21WAF1/CIP1 were observed only in MCF-7 cells, although in PC-3 cells a significant increase (P < 0.0005) in the percentage of cells staining positive for p21Waf1/Cip1 was seen [27].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four OCs (dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and more specifically to identify the mechanism underlying OC-induced ERK1/2 activation [28].
  • The extent of modulation of TP53 and CDKN1A is significantly reduced in the presence of the gap junction inhibitor lindane and in irradiated low-density cell populations [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hexachlorane


  1. Aplastic anemia associated with gamma-benzene hexachloride. Hans, R.J. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Development of hepatocellular carcinomas in rats treated with benzene hexachloride. Ito, N., Nagasaki, H., Aoe, H., Sugihara, S., Miyata, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Sequential histopathologic analysis of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane-induced hepatic megalocytosis and adenoma formation in the HPB mouse. Tryphonas, L., Iverson, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Behavioral and monoaminergic changes after lindane exposure in developing rats. Rivera, S., Rosa, R., Martínez, E., Suñol, C., Serrano, M.T., Vendrell, M., Rodríguez-Farré, E., Sanfeliu, C. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Toxicological and neuropsychological findings in patients presenting to an environmental toxicology service. Köppel, C., Fahron, G. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Lindane for scabies in Bangladesh. Codington, H.B., Coghlan, S.E. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of cell movement and associated changes by hexachlorocyclohexanes due to unregulated intracellular calcium increases. Kaplan, S.S., Zdziarski, U.E., Kuhns, D.B., Basford, R.E. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Hexachlorocyclohexanes, potent stimuli of O2- production and calcium release in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Kuhns, D.B., Kaplan, S.S., Basford, R.E. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Community control of scabies: a model based on use of permethrin cream. Taplin, D., Porcelain, S.L., Meinking, T.L., Athey, R.L., Chen, J.A., Castillero, P.M., Sanchez, R. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Novel estrogenic action of the pesticide residue beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in human breast cancer cells. Steinmetz, R., Young, P.C., Caperell-Grant, A., Gize, E.A., Madhukar, B.V., Ben-Jonathan, N., Bigsby, R.M. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacotherapy of ectoparasitic infections. Roos, T.C., Alam, M., Roos, S., Merk, H.F., Bickers, D.R. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Blockade of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor inhibits hepatic DNA synthesis stimulated by tumor promoters. Tsai, W.H., Cruise, J.L., Michalopoulos, G.K. Carcinogenesis (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prediagnostic serum organochlorines: beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane/heptachlor-related compounds, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene. Cantor, K.P., Strickland, P.T., Brock, J.W., Bush, D., Helzlsouer, K., Needham, L.L., Zahm, S.H., Comstock, G.W., Rothman, N. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Two-stage control of cell proliferation induced in rat liver by alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane. Schulte-Hermann, R. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Gap junction-mediated transfer of left-right patterning signals in the early chick blastoderm is upstream of Shh asymmetry in the node. Levin, M., Mercola, M. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Disruption of autophagy at the maturation step by the carcinogen lindane is associated with the sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. Corcelle, E., Nebout, M., Bekri, S., Gauthier, N., Hofman, P., Poujeol, P., Fénichel, P., Mograbi, B. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Assessment of low linear energy transfer radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis in a three-dimensional culture model. Persaud, R., Zhou, H., Baker, S.E., Hei, T.K., Hall, E.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Dose-response studies on the effects of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane on putative preneoplastic foci, monooxygenases, and growth in rat liver. Schröter, C., Parzefall, W., Schröter, H., Schulte-Hermann, R. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Reversibility and irreversibility of liver tumors in mice induced by the alpha isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane. Ito, N., Hananouchi, M., Sugihara, S., Shirai, T., Tsuda, H. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Xenobiotics released from fat during fasting produce estrogenic effects in ovariectomized mice. Bigsby, R.M., Caperell-Grant, A., Madhukar, B.V. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Reversible activation of the neutrophil superoxide generating system by hexachlorocyclohexane: correlation with effects on a subcellular superoxide-generating fraction. English, D., Schell, M., Siakotos, A., Gabig, T.G. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals in samples of second trimester human amniotic fluid. Foster, W., Chan, S., Platt, L., Hughes, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of hexachlorocyclohexanes on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by RNA from mammalian brain and retina. Woodward, R.M., Polenzani, L., Miledi, R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro induction of reactive oxygen species by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, endrin, and lindane in rat peritoneal macrophages, and hepatic mitochondria and microsomes. Bagchi, M., Stohs, S.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Lindane-induced liver oxidative stress. Videla, L.A., Barros, S.B., Junqueira, V.B. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Aberrant Connexin 43 endocytosis by the carcinogen lindane involves activation of the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mograbi, B., Corcelle, E., Defamie, N., Samson, M., Nebout, M., Segretain, D., Fénichel, P., Pointis, G. Carcinogenesis (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Low dose induction of micronuclei by lindane. Kalantzi, O.I., Hewitt, R., Ford, K.J., Cooper, L., Alcock, R.E., Thomas, G.O., Morris, J.A., McMillan, T.J., Jones, K.C., Martin, F.L. Carcinogenesis (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of organochlorine insecticides on MAP kinase pathways in human HaCaT keratinocytes: key role of reactive oxygen species. Ledirac, N., Antherieu, S., d'Uby, A.D., Caron, J.C., Rahmani, R. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Intercellular communication is involved in the bystander regulation of gene expression in human cells exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. Azzam, E.I., de Toledo, S.M., Gooding, T., Little, J.B. Radiat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Failure to discriminate initiation from promotion of liver tumors in a long-term study with the phenobarbital-type inducer alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and the role of sustained stimulation of hepatic growth and monooxygenases. Schulte-Hermann, R., Parzefall, W. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Lindane administration to the rat induces modifications in the regional cerebral binding of [3H]Muscimol, [3H]-flunitrazepam, and t-[35S]butylbicyclophosphorothionate: an autoradiographic study. Solà, C., Martínez, E., Camón, L., Pazos, A., Rodríguez-Farré, E. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular cloning of a Pseudomonas paucimobilis gene encoding a 17-kilodalton polypeptide that eliminates HCl molecules from gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Imai, R., Nagata, Y., Fukuda, M., Takagi, M., Yano, K. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Genotoxic effect of benzene hexachloride in cultured human lymphocytes. Rupa, D.S., Reddy, P.P., Reddi, O.S. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
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