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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Agricultural pesticide use and hypospadias in eastern arkansas.

IntroductionWe assessed the relationship between hypospadias and proximity to agricultural pesticide applications using a GIS-based exposure method.MethodsWe obtained information for 354 cases of hypospadias born between 1998 and 2002 in eastern Arkansas; 727 controls were selected from birth certificates. We classified exposure on pounds of pesticides (estimated by crop type) applied or persisting within 500 m of each subject's home during gestational weeks 6 to 16. We restricted our analyses to 38 pesticides with some evidence of reproductive, developmental, estrogenic, and/or antiandrogenic effects. We estimated timing of pesticide applications using crop phenology and published records.ResultsGestational age at birth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-0.99], parity (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95), and delaying prenatal care until the third trimester (OR = 4.04; 95% CI, 1.46-11.23) were significantly associated with hypospadias. Risk of hypospadias increased by 8% for every 0.05-pound increase in estimated exposure to diclofop-methyl use (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15). Pesticide applications in aggregate (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96) and applications of alachlor (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89) and permethrin (OR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.86) were negatively associated with hypospadias.ConclusionsExcept for diclofop-methyl, we did not find evidence that estimated exposure to pesticides known to have reproductive, developmental, or endocrine-disrupting effects increases risk of hypospadias. Further research on the potential effects of exposure to diclofop-methyl is recommended.[1]


  1. Agricultural pesticide use and hypospadias in eastern arkansas. Meyer, K.J., Reif, J.S., Veeramachaneni, D.N., Luben, T.J., Mosley, B.S., Nuckols, J.R. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
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