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MeSH Review

Prenatal Care

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Disease relevance of Prenatal Care


Psychiatry related information on Prenatal Care


High impact information on Prenatal Care

  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in prenatal care utilization, according to 4 indices (the older indices: the Institute of Medicine Index and the trimester that care began, and the newer indices: the R-GINDEX and the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index) [10].
  • OBJECTIVES: In 1989, the Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care established guidelines on the timing and content of prenatal care, including a schedule consisting of fewer prenatal visits than traditionally provided, for women at low risk of adverse perinatal outcomes [11].
  • DESIGN: A decision analysis that incorporated the following variables: acceptance and benefit of prenatal care, acceptance and benefit of zidovudine therapy in HIV-infected women, prevalence of HIV infection, and mandatory compared with voluntary HIV testing [12].
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one percent of pregestational diabetic women presented for prenatal care with suboptimal control of their blood glucose levels (hemoglobin A1c measurement, >0.08) [13].
  • OBJECTIVE: We measured urinary excretion of the isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha), which is an indicator of oxidative damage to lipids, and the total antioxidant power, which is a global measure of antioxidant status, at the entry to prenatal care [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prenatal Care


Biological context of Prenatal Care


Anatomical context of Prenatal Care


Associations of Prenatal Care with chemical compounds

  • Enrollment of cocaine users in prenatal care may be an effective start to a more comprehensive approach to this problem [27].
  • This counselling should include, but is not limited to, folic acid supplementation, medication adherence, the risk of teratogenicity and the importance of prenatal care [28].
  • We examined the association between adequacy of prenatal care and four measures of zidovudine prescription: prenatal, intrapartum, neonatal, and the complete regimen [29].
  • Race, ethanol exposure, prenatal care, homelessness, and head circumference were not predictive of an abnormal tone examination [30].
  • Cigarette smoking information and urine cotinine concentration were collected for 3,395 self-reported smokers who were receiving prenatal care at public clinics in three US states (Colorado, Maryland, and Missouri) and who delivered term infants [31].

Gene context of Prenatal Care

  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the presence of the Glu298Asp eNOS gene is not a marker for the increased risk of preeclampsia in a population where the level of prenatal care is such that preeclampsia is still frequently seen [32].
  • The sera of 12 women classified at high risk of exposure and 19 classified at low risk were tested during prenatal care, at delivery, or at both times for IgG and IgM antibodies to B19 [33].
  • With other factors adjusted for, non-White mothers with early prenatal care were more likely than White mothers to deliver their very low birthweight infants in hospitals with neonatal ICUs without transfer [34].
  • Adolescents who reported early vaginal bleeding also entered prenatal care later (16.2 weeks) than did adolescents who reported no bleeding (12.7 weeks) (P less than .03); this was not true for adults [35].
  • Reasons for this type of frequency could be ascribed to malnutrition, trauma, genetic conditions, antenatal and prenatal care, diseases resulting in febrile convulsions, cerebral infections and may even result in death in specifically diseased individuals [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prenatal Care


  1. Heterosexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in a rural Florida community. Ellerbrock, T.V., Lieb, S., Harrington, P.E., Bush, T.J., Schoenfisch, S.A., Oxtoby, M.J., Howell, J.T., Rogers, M.F., Witte, J.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Association between newborn birth weight and prenatal care for cocaine users. Morfesis, F.A. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Cystic fibrosis carrier population screening in the primary care setting. Loader, S., Caldwell, P., Kozyra, A., Levenkron, J.C., Boehm, C.D., Kazazian, H.H., Rowley, P.T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Maternal risk factors for congenital syphilis: a case-control study. Webber, M.P., Lambert, G., Bateman, D.A., Hauser, W.A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among women receiving prenatal care at the Palm Beach County Health Department. Malecki, J.M., Guarin, O., Hulbert, A., Brumback, C.L. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Neurobehavioral sequelae of fetal cocaine exposure. Singer, L.T., Garber, R., Kliegman, R. J. Pediatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Community-wide estimation of illicit drug use in delivering women: prevalence, demographics, and associated risk factors. Vaughn, A.J., Carzoli, R.P., Sanchez-Ramos, L., Murphy, S., Khan, N., Chiu, T. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Risks associated with cocaine use during pregnancy. Slutsker, L. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The narcotic-dependent mother: fetal and neonatal consequences. Kandall, S.R., Albin, S., Gartner, L.M., Lee, K.S., Eidelman, A., Lowinson, J. Early Hum. Dev. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. The changing pattern of prenatal care utilization in the United States, 1981-1995, using different prenatal care indices. Kogan, M.D., Martin, J.A., Alexander, G.R., Kotelchuck, M., Ventura, S.J., Frigoletto, F.D. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of frequency of prenatal care visits on perinatal outcome among low-risk women. A randomized controlled trial. McDuffie, R.S., Beck, A., Bischoff, K., Cross, J., Orleans, M. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. A decision analysis of mandatory compared with voluntary HIV testing in pregnant women. Nakchbandi, I.A., Longenecker, J.C., Ricksecker, M.A., Latta, R.A., Healton, C., Smith, D.G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Factors influencing preconception control of glycemia in diabetic women. Casele, H.L., Laifer, S.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Oxidative stress, diet, and the etiology of preeclampsia. Scholl, T.O., Leskiw, M., Chen, X., Sims, M., Stein, T.P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Glucose tolerance during pregnancy and birth weight in a Hispanic population. Kieffer, E.C., Nolan, G.H., Carman, W.J., Sanborn, C.Z., Guzman, R., Ventura, A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Folate knowledge, intake from fortified grain products, and periconceptional supplementation patterns of a sample of low-income pregnant women according to the Health Belief Model. Kloeblen, A.S. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Offspring effects and pregnancy complications related to self-reported maternal alcohol use. Streissguth, A.P., Barr, H.M., Martin, D.C. Developmental pharmacology and therapeutics. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Calcium to creatinine ratio in a spot sample of urine for early prediction of pre-eclampsia. Kazerooni, T., Hamze-Nejadi, S. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The management of retinopathy of prematurity. Reynolds, J.D. Paediatric drugs. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Psychosocial risk factors associated with cocaine use during pregnancy: a case-control study. Hutchins, E., DiPietro, J. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Fetal Rhesus D genotyping on amniocytes in alloimmunised pregnancies using fluorescence duplex polymerase chain reaction. Crombach, G., Picard, F., Beckmann, M., Tutschek, B., Bald, R., Niederacher, D. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. Relationship of maternal factors and delivery room practices to effective control measures. Pierog, S., Nigam, S., Marasigan, D.C., Dube, S.K. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Congenital complete absence (bilateral agenesis) of the diaphragm: a rare variant of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Jasnosz, K.M., Hermansen, M.C., Snider, C., Sang, K. American journal of perinatology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Reduction in the risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1 associated with treatment of pregnant women with orally administered zidovudine alone. Simpson, B.J., Shapiro, E.D., Andiman, W.A. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Fetal fibronectin: a method for detecting the presence of amniotic fluid. Eriksen, N.L., Parisi, V.M., Daoust, S., Flamm, B., Garite, T.J., Cox, S.M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Recent cocaine use is not associated with fetal acidemia or other manifestations of intrapartum fetal distress. Andres, R.L., Day, M.C., Larrabee, K. American journal of perinatology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. The association between prenatal care and birth weight among women exposed to cocaine in New York City. Racine, A., Joyce, T., Anderson, R. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Treatment of epilepsy in women of reproductive age: pharmacokinetic considerations. McAuley, J.W., Anderson, G.D. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Adequacy of prenatal care and prescription of zidovudine to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Lansky, A., Jones, J.L., Burkham, S., Reynolds, K., Bohannon, B., Bertolli, J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Tone abnormalities are associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy in in utero cocaine-exposed infants. Dempsey, D.A., Hajnal, B.L., Partridge, J.C., Jacobson, S.N., Good, W., Jones, R.T., Ferriero, D.M. Pediatrics (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Measures of maternal tobacco exposure and infant birth weight at term. England, L.J., Kendrick, J.S., Gargiullo, P.M., Zahniser, S.C., Hannon, W.H. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Genetic and environmental contributions to severe preeclampsia: lack of association with the endothelial nitric oxide synthase Glu298Asp variant in a developing country. Yoshimura, T., Chowdhury, F.A., Yoshimura, M., Okamura, H. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. Woernle, C.H., Anderson, L.J., Tattersall, P., Davison, J.M. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Access to neonatal intensive care for low-birthweight infants: the role of maternal characteristics. Bronstein, J.M., Capilouto, E., Carlo, W.A., Haywood, J.L., Goldenberg, R.L. American journal of public health. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Early vaginal bleeding, late prenatal care, and misdating in adolescent pregnancies. Stevens-Simon, C., Roghmann, K.J., McAnarney, E.R. Pediatrics (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Prevalence of active epilepsy in a rural area in South Tanzania: a door-to-door survey. Dent, W., Helbok, R., Matuja, W.B., Scheunemann, S., Schmutzhard, E. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Prenatal care in cocaine-exposed pregnancies. Burkett, G., Gomez-Marin, O., Yasin, S.Y., Martinez, M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Potentially avoidable maternity complications: an indicator of access to prenatal and primary care during pregnancy. Laditka, S.B., Laditka, J.N., Mastanduno, M.P., Lauria, M.R., Foster, T.C. Women & health. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Perinatal outcome associated with PCP versus cocaine use. Tabor, B.L., Smith-Wallace, T., Yonekura, M.L. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. (1990) [Pubmed]
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