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Disease relevance of Hypospadias


Psychiatry related information on Hypospadias


High impact information on Hypospadias

  • Opitz syndrome (OS, McKusick 145410) is a well described genetic syndrome affecting multiple organ systems whose cardinal manifestations include widely spaced eyes and hypospadias (Fig. 1). It was first reported as two separate entities, BBB syndrome, and G syndrome [9].
  • Affected males from this family also have hypospadias, not previously described in SPD, but consistent with HOXD13 expression in the developing genital tubercle [10].
  • We report that mice lacking the IIIb isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) exhibit severe hypospadias [11].
  • Loss of Bmp7 and Fgf8 signaling in Hoxa13-mutant mice causes hypospadia [12].
  • Mice mutant for Hoxa13 also exhibit changes in androgen receptor expression, providing a developmental link between Hoxa13-associated hypospadias and those produced by antagonists to androgen signaling [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hypospadias


Biological context of Hypospadias


Anatomical context of Hypospadias

  • Mice carrying mutations which disrupt the bidirectional signals that these molecules transduce develop with variably penetrant severe hypospadias and incomplete midline fusion of the primitive cloaca [4].
  • PURPOSE: In 1987 we developed distal urethral advancement and glanuloplasty, a surgical technique specifically intended for coronal and subcoronal hypospadias repair that involves moving the distal urethra 0.5 to 1 cm., Y shaped meatoplasty and glanuloplasty [24].
  • Abnormality of intracellular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone binding in simple hypospadias: studies on equilibrium steroid binding in sonicates of genital skin fibroblasts [25].
  • In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing [26].
  • This midline plate does not appear in finasteride-exposed fetuses destined to have hypospadias as demonstrated in a previous study [27].

Gene context of Hypospadias


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypospadias


  1. Frasier syndrome is caused by defective alternative splicing of WT1 leading to an altered ratio of WT1 +/-KTS splice isoforms. Klamt, B., Koziell, A., Poulat, F., Wieacker, P., Scambler, P., Berta, P., Gessler, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Abnormalities of the genitourinary tract in female mice lacking GATA5. Molkentin, J.D., Tymitz, K.M., Richardson, J.A., Olson, E.N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Estrogen and androgen production rates in two brothers with Reifenstein syndrome. Guerami, A., Griffin, J.E., Kovacs, W.J., Grino, P.B., MacDonald, P.C., Wilson, J.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Bidirectional signaling mediated by ephrin-B2 and EphB2 controls urorectal development. Dravis, C., Yokoyama, N., Chumley, M.J., Cowan, C.A., Silvany, R.E., Shay, J., Baker, L.A., Henkemeyer, M. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. FXY2/MID2, a gene related to the X-linked Opitz syndrome gene FXY/MID1, maps to Xq22 and encodes a FNIII domain-containing protein that associates with microtubules. Perry, J., Short, K.M., Romer, J.T., Swift, S., Cox, T.C., Ashworth, A. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. Wilson, J.D., Griffin, J.E., Russell, D.W. Endocr. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. A structure-function study of MID1 mutations associated with a mild Opitz phenotype. Mnayer, L., Khuri, S., Merheby, H.A., Meroni, G., Elsas, L.J. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. A case-control study to evaluate the risk of congenital anomalies as a result of allylestrenol therapy during pregnancy. Czeizel, A., Huiskes, N. Clinical therapeutics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Opitz syndrome is genetically heterogeneous, with one locus on Xp22, and a second locus on 22q11.2. Robin, N.H., Feldman, G.J., Aronson, A.L., Mitchell, H.F., Weksberg, R., Leonard, C.O., Burton, B.K., Josephson, K.D., Laxová, R., Aleck, K.A., Allanson, J.E., Guion-Almeida, M.L., Martin, R.A., Leichtman, L.G., Price, R.A., Opitz, J.M., Muenke, M. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Synpolydactyly phenotypes correlate with size of expansions in HOXD13 polyalanine tract. Goodman, F.R., Mundlos, S., Muragaki, Y., Donnai, D., Giovannucci-Uzielli, M.L., Lapi, E., Majewski, F., McGaughran, J., McKeown, C., Reardon, W., Upton, J., Winter, R.M., Olsen, B.R., Scambler, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Development of the mammalian urethra is controlled by Fgfr2-IIIb. Petiot, A., Perriton, C.L., Dickson, C., Cohn, M.J. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Loss of Bmp7 and Fgf8 signaling in Hoxa13-mutant mice causes hypospadia. Morgan, E.A., Nguyen, S.B., Scott, V., Stadler, H.S. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency. Diagnosis, psychological evaluation, and management. Mendonca, B.B., Inacio, M., Arnhold, I.J., Costa, E.M., Bloise, W., Martin, R.M., Denes, F.T., Silva, F.A., Andersson, S., Lindqvist, A., Wilson, J.D. Medicine (Baltimore) (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Antiepileptic drugs and teratogenesis in two consecutive cohorts: changes in prescription policy paralleled by changes in pattern of malformations. Lindhout, D., Meinardi, H., Meijer, J.W., Nau, H. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to 17,20-desmolase deficiency. Kaufman, F.R., Costin, G., Goebelsmann, U., Stanczyk, F.Z., Zachmann, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasma androgen responce to hCG stimulation in prepubertal boys with hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Walsh, P.C., Curry, N., Mills, R.C., Siiteri, P.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Lack of defects in androgen production in children with hypospadias. Holmes, N.M., Miller, W.L., Baskin, L.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Endocrine disruptors in the workplace, hair spray, folate supplementation, and risk of hypospadias: case-control study. Ormond, G., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Nelson, P., Toledano, M.B., Iszatt, N., Geneletti, S., Elliott, P. Environ. Health Perspect. (2009) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of development of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent pigment cells in scrotal skin dermis of the rat by antiandrogen treatment during fetal growth. Wilson, M.J. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Androgen receptor gene mutations are rarely associated with isolated penile hypospadias. Sutherland, R.W., Wiener, J.S., Hicks, J.P., Marcelli, M., Gonzales, E.T., Roth, D.R., Lamb, D.J. J. Urol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Maternal genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 and the risk of hypospadias. Kurahashi, N., Sata, F., Kasai, S., Shibata, T., Moriya, K., Yamada, H., Kakizaki, H., Minakami, H., Nonomura, K., Kishi, R. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of two point mutations in the androgen receptor gene of patients with perineoscrotal hypospadia. Kaspar, F., Cato, A.C., Denninger, A., Eberle, J., Radmayr, C., Glatzl, J., Bartsch, G., Klocker, H. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Maternal exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate and hypospadia in offspring: a case report. Bolt, H.M., Golka, K. British journal of industrial medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Long-term results of distal urethral advancement glanuloplasty for distal hypospadias. Caione, P., Capozza, N., Lais, A., Ferro, F., Matarazzo, E., Nappo, S. J. Urol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Abnormality of intracellular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone binding in simple hypospadias: studies on equilibrium steroid binding in sonicates of genital skin fibroblasts. Keenan, B.S., McNeel, R.L., Gonzales, E.T. Pediatr. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Toppari, J., Larsen, J.C., Christiansen, P., Giwercman, A., Grandjean, P., Guillette, L.J., Jégou, B., Jensen, T.K., Jouannet, P., Keiding, N., Leffers, H., McLachlan, J.A., Meyer, O., Müller, J., Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Scheike, T., Sharpe, R., Sumpter, J., Skakkebaek, N.E. Environ. Health Perspect. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Critical developmental periods for effects on male rat genitalia induced by finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. Clark, R.L., Anderson, C.A., Prahalada, S., Robertson, R.T., Lochry, E.A., Leonard, Y.M., Stevens, J.L., Hoberman, A.M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with hypospadias. Beleza-Meireles, A., Omrani, D., Kockum, I., Frisén, L., Lagerstedt, K., Nordenskjöld, A. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Steroid 5alpha-reductase 1 polymorphisms and testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratio in male patients with hypospadias. Tria, A., Hiort, O., Sinnecker, G.H. Horm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Exclusion of WTAP and HOXA13 as candidate genes for isolated hypospadias. Utsch, B., Kaya, A., Ozburun, A., Lentze, M.J., Albers, N., Ludwig, M. Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Risk factors for hypospadias in the estrogen receptor 2 gene. Beleza-Meireles, A., Kockum, I., Lundberg, F., Söderhäll, C., Nordenskjöld, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. De-epithelialized skin flap coverage in hypospadias repair. Belman, A.B. J. Urol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Caudal epidural anesthesia reduces blood loss during hypospadias repair. Gunter, J.B., Forestner, J.E., Manley, C.B. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers. Weidner, I.S., Møller, H., Jensen, T.K., Skakkebaek, N.E. Environ. Health Perspect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. The split prepuce in situ onlay hypospadias repair. Rushton, H.G., Belman, A.B. J. Urol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Midline dorsal plication to repair recurrent chordee at reoperation for hypospadias surgery complication. Yucel, S., Sanli, A., Kukul, E., Karaguzel, G., Melikoglu, M., Guntekin, E. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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