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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro screening of 200 pesticides for agonistic activity via mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and PPARgamma and quantitative analysis of in vivo induction pathway.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and key regulators of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation. However, there have been few studies reporting on a variety of environmental chemicals, which may interact with these receptors. In the present study, we characterized mouse PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonistic activities of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 11 acid amides, 7 triazines, 8 ureas and 44 others) by in vitro reporter gene assays using CV-1 monkey kidney cells. Three of the 200 pesticides, diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, which have different chemical structures, showed PPARalpha-mediated transcriptional activities in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, none of the 200 pesticides showed PPARgamma agonistic activity at concentrations </=10(-5) M. To investigate the in vivo effects of diclofop-methyl, pyrethrins and imazalil, we examined the gene expression of PPARalpha-inducible cytochrome P450 4As (CYP4As) in the liver of female mice intraperitoneally injected with these compounds (</=300 mg/kg). RT-PCR revealed significantly high induction levels of CYP4A10 and CYP4A14 mRNAs in diclofop-methyl- and pyrethrins-treated mice, whereas imazalil induced almost no gene expressions of CYP4As. In particular, diclofop-methyl induced as high levels of CYP4A mRNAs as WY-14643, a potent PPARalpha agonist. Thus, most of the 200 pesticides tested do not activate PPARalpha or PPARgamma in in vitro assays, but only diclofop-methyl and pyrethrins induce PPARalpha agonistic activity in vivo as well as in vitro.[1]


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