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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lipocalin 2 antagonizes the proangiogenic action of ras in transformed cells.

Lipocalin 2 is an iron-binding secreted protein that converts embryonic kidney mesenchyme to epithelia. Previously, we reported that lipocalin 2 could revert 4T1-ras-transformed mesenchymal tumor cells to a more epithelial phenotype, increase E-cadherin expression, and suppress cell invasiveness in vitro and in vivo, indicating that lipocalin 2 is a metastasis suppressor. Here, we show that lipocalin 2 can suppress the ras- induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in 4T1 cells via down-regulation of ras mitogen-activated protein kinase and ras phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling. In addition, the expression of thrombospondin-1 (an antiangiogenic molecule) was increased in tumors formed by 4T1-ras cells into which lipocalin 2 was stably introduced. Tumor angiogenesis, assessed via an intradermal tumor angiogenesis assay, was also suppressed by lipocalin 2. We also show that caveolin-1 is a critical mediator of this activity. These data provide new insights into the action of lipocalin 2 and raise the possibility that the administration of lipocalin 2 may be useful for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, in addition to suppressing tumor metastasis, in cancers which show ras activation. (Mol Cancer Res 2006;4(11):821-9).[1]


  1. Lipocalin 2 antagonizes the proangiogenic action of ras in transformed cells. Venkatesha, S., Hanai, J., Seth, P., Karumanchi, S.A., Sukhatme, V.P. Mol. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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