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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for preanesthetic medication of pediatric day surgery patients with and without droperidol as a prophylactic anti-emetic.

he safety and efficacy of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) as a preanesthetic medication and the efficacy of droperidol as a prophylactic anti-emetic were evaluated in 100 children aged 2-8 yr undergoing general anesthesia for outpatient surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups and managed in a double-blinded manner: 1) placebo lozenge 45 min preoperatively and placebo (normal saline) injected intravenously after induction of anesthesia; 2) placebo lozenge 45 min preoperatively and 50 micrograms/kg droperidol intravenously after induction; 3) 15-20 micrograms/kg OTFC lozenge 45 min preoperatively and placebo intravenously after induction; and 4) 15-20 micrograms/kg OTFC lozenge 45 min preoperatively and droperidol 50 micrograms/kg intravenously after induction. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) were monitored throughout the study. Scoring systems were used to evaluate sedation, anxiety, cooperation, and ease and quality of anesthetic induction. Emergence, recovery, and discharge times were recorded. Nausea, vomiting, and adverse effects were noted. Preoperatively, children receiving OTFC had significantly greater sedation, slower respiratory rates, lower SpO2, and less excitement during induction. Postoperative nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more frequently after OTFC than after placebo. Prophylactic droperidol did not significantly reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting. The authors conclude that, in pediatric surgical outpatients, OTFC reliably induces preoperative sedation and facilitates inhalation induction of anesthesia, but it is associated with significant decreases in respiratory rate and SpO2 and a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting that is not significantly reduced by prophylactic droperidol.[1]


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