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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Inhalation


Psychiatry related information on Inhalation

  • Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon 133 inhalation method in 20 patients with senile and presenile dementia, and values were compared with flow data obtained in a series of 44 age-matched normal controls [6].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm the greater behavioral and physiological sensitivity of patients with panic disorder to CO2 inhalation and identify a series of respiratory abnormalities [7].
  • Cerebral blood flow during delirium tremens and related clinical states studied with xenon-133 inhalation tomography [8].
  • A randomized, between-groups, repeated measures design was used to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), rating scales, and physiologic indices under resting conditions, during 5% CO2 inhalation in combination with epinephrine or saline infusions, in generalized anxiety disorder patients and controls [9].
  • Eleven patients with left hemispheric ischemic strokes and 13 with right hemispheric ischemic strokes were studied with the xenon-133 inhalation technique and neuropsychological tests [10].

High impact information on Inhalation

  • These deficits persisted after inhalation of albuterol [11].
  • A total of 417 adults with influenza-like illness of < or =48 hours' duration were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 6.4 mg of zanamivir by intranasal spray plus 10 mg by inhalation, 10 mg of zanamivir by inhalation plus placebo spray, or placebo by both routes [12].
  • Hemodynamic variables, gas exchange, and ventilation-perfusion distributions were measured by means of multiple inert-gas-elimination techniques during nitric oxide inhalation; the results were compared with those obtained during intravenous infusion of prostacyclin [13].
  • In a multicenter trial we compared three inhalation regimens in which a beta 2-agonist (terbutaline, 2000 micrograms daily) was combined with a corticosteroid (beclomethasone, 800 micrograms daily), an anticholinergic bronchodilator (ipratropium bromide, 160 micrograms daily), or placebo [14].
  • There was a significant increase in FEV1 one hour after the inhalation of salmeterol (P = 0.006), which did not differ significantly on days 0, 28, and 56 of the treatment period (increase, 9.8, 9.4, and 8.8 percent of predicted FEV1, respectively; P = 0.91) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Inhalation


Biological context of Inhalation


Anatomical context of Inhalation


Associations of Inhalation with chemical compounds

  • In 12 patients, pretreatment with the alpha-adrenergic agonist methoxamine (10 mg by inhalation), a potent vasoconstrictor, fully prevented the methacholine-induced decrease in FEV1 [31].
  • Thirty-eight of 114 patients given pentamidine (33 percent) and 7 of 109 given placebo (6 percent) had moderate-to-severe coughing during inhalations (two-tailed P less than 0.00001), which caused 4 patients given pentamidine (3.5 percent) to discontinue taking it [32].
  • In group 1, the mean (+/- SD) duration of exercise increased from 293 +/- 136 seconds after the inhalation of placebo to 612 +/- 257 seconds after the inhalation of methoxamine (P = 0.001) [4].
  • A similar icatibant-sensitive enhancement of citric acid-evoked cough was seen in untreated animals after prior inhalation of bradykinin, although cough evoked by hypertonic saline was unaffected [33].
  • The distribution of gray matter in the two cerebral hemispheres was determined by the xenon-133 inhalation method [34].

Gene context of Inhalation

  • In vivo, the significance of IL-10 in regulating responses to repeated A. fumigatus inhalation was strikingly revealed in IL-10-/- outbred mice that had a 50-60% mortality rate, while mortality was rare in similarly treated WT mice [35].
  • Here we report that local pharmacological targeting of the C5a receptor (C5aR) prior to initial allergen sensitization in murine models of inhalation tolerance or allergic asthma resulted in either induction or marked enhancement of Th2-polarized immune responses, airway inflammation, and AHR [36].
  • In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, inhalation of asbestos by mice expressing the mutant EGFR does not result in early and elevated expression of early response proto-oncogenes (fos/jun or activator protein 1 family members) [37].
  • Persistent localization of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is epithelial cell-specific in an inhalation model of asbestosis [38].
  • SLPI and heparin were co-administered by inhalation in therapy against antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in a sheep bronchoprovocation model [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Inhalation


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  2. Immunologic components of hypersensitivity reactions to cromolyn sodium. Sheffer, A.L., Rocklin, R.E., Goetzl, E.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Myocardial infarction after inhalation of methamphetamine. Furst, S.R., Fallon, S.P., Reznik, G.N., Shah, P.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Improvement in exercise performance by inhalation of methoxamine in patients with impaired left ventricular function. Cabanes, L., Costes, F., Weber, S., Regnard, J., Benvenuti, C., Castaigne, A., Guerin, F., Lockhart, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Pneumopericardium from cocaine inhalation. Adrouny, A., Magnusson, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Bihemispheric decreases of regional cerebral blood flow in dementia: correlation with age-matched normal controls. Lavy, S., Melamed, E., Bentin, S., Cooper, G., Rinot, Y. Ann. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. Respiratory psychophysiology of panic disorder: three respiratory challenges in 98 subjects. Papp, L.A., Martinez, J.M., Klein, D.F., Coplan, J.D., Norman, R.G., Cole, R., de Jesus, M.J., Ross, D., Goetz, R., Gorman, J.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Cerebral blood flow during delirium tremens and related clinical states studied with xenon-133 inhalation tomography. Hemmingsen, R., Vorstrup, S., Clemmesen, L., Holm, S., Tfelt-Hansen, P., Sørensen, A.S., Hansen, C., Sommer, W., Bolwig, T.G. The American journal of psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Cerebral vasodilation and vasoconstriction associated with acute anxiety. Mathew, R.J., Wilson, W.H., Humphreys, D., Lowe, J.V., Wiethe, K.E. Biol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological asymmetries in unilateral stroke. Brown, G.G., Ewing, J.R., Robertson, W.M., Welch, K.M. Stroke (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of pneumonia and whooping cough in childhood on adult lung function. Johnston, I.D., Strachan, D.P., Anderson, H.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Efficacy and safety of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenzavirus infections. GG167 Influenza Study Group. Hayden, F.G., Osterhaus, A.D., Treanor, J.J., Fleming, D.M., Aoki, F.Y., Nicholson, K.G., Bohnen, A.M., Hirst, H.M., Keene, O., Wightman, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhaled nitric oxide for the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Rossaint, R., Falke, K.J., López, F., Slama, K., Pison, U., Zapol, W.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. A comparison of bronchodilator therapy with or without inhaled corticosteroid therapy for obstructive airways disease. Dutch Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease Study Group. Kerstjens, H.A., Brand, P.L., Hughes, M.D., Robinson, N.J., Postma, D.S., Sluiter, H.J., Bleecker, E.R., Dekhuijzen, P.N., de Jong, P.M., Mengelers, H.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Long-term effects of a long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, salmeterol, on airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with mild asthma. Cheung, D., Timmers, M.C., Zwinderman, A.H., Bel, E.H., Dijkman, J.H., Sterk, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhaled nebulized nitrite is a hypoxia-sensitive NO-dependent selective pulmonary vasodilator. Hunter, C.J., Dejam, A., Blood, A.B., Shields, H., Kim-Shapiro, D.B., Machado, R.F., Tarekegn, S., Mulla, N., Hopper, A.O., Schechter, A.N., Power, G.G., Gladwin, M.T. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical applicability of a methacholine inhalational challenge. Myers, J.R., Corrao, W.M., Braman, S.S. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Airway constriction in normal humans produced by inhalation of leukotriene D. Potency, time course, and effect of aspirin therapy. Weiss, J.W., Drazen, J.M., McFadden, E.R., Weller, P., Corey, E.J., Lewis, R.A., Austen, K.F. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of the respiratory responses to external resistive loading and bronchoconstriction. Kelsen, S.G., Prestel, T.F., Cherniack, N.S., Chester, E.H., Deal, E.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanism of the ventilatory response to carbon monoxide. Santiago, T.V., Edelman, N.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Large porous particles for pulmonary drug delivery. Edwards, D.A., Hanes, J., Caponetti, G., Hrkach, J., Ben-Jebria, A., Eskew, M.L., Mintzes, J., Deaver, D., Lotan, N., Langer, R. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate in bronchial asthma. Okayama, H., Aikawa, T., Okayama, M., Sasaki, H., Mue, S., Takishima, T. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Inhibition of T cell and antibody responses to house dust mite allergen by inhalation of the dominant T cell epitope in naive and sensitized mice. Hoyne, G.F., O'Hehir, R.E., Wraith, D.C., Thomas, W.R., Lamb, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Continuous inhalation of nitric oxide protects against development of pulmonary hypertension in chronically hypoxic rats. Kouyoumdjian, C., Adnot, S., Levame, M., Eddahibi, S., Bousbaa, H., Raffestin, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. The pulmonary circulation of homozygous or heterozygous eNOS-null mice is hyperresponsive to mild hypoxia. Fagan, K.A., Fouty, B.W., Tyler, R.C., Morris, K.G., Hepler, L.K., Sato, K., LeCras, T.D., Abman, S.H., Weinberger, H.D., Huang, P.L., McMurtry, I.F., Rodman, D.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Essential role of lung plasmacytoid dendritic cells in preventing asthmatic reactions to harmless inhaled antigen. de Heer, H.J., Hammad, H., Soullié, T., Hijdra, D., Vos, N., Willart, M.A., Hoogsteden, H.C., Lambrecht, B.N. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. OX40 (CD134) controls memory T helper 2 cells that drive lung inflammation. Salek-Ardakani, S., Song, J., Halteman, B.S., Jember, A.G., Akiba, H., Yagita, H., Croft, M. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Endothelin immunoreactivity of airway epithelium in asthmatic patients. Springall, D.R., Howarth, P.H., Counihan, H., Djukanovic, R., Holgate, S.T., Polak, J.M. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of experimental cirrhosis on splanchnic microvascular fluid and solute exchange in the rat. Barrowman, J.A., Granger, D.N. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Measurement of human esophageal tone in vivo. Mayrand, S., Diamant, N.E. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with impaired left ventricular function. Cabanes, L.R., Weber, S.N., Matran, R., Regnard, J., Richard, M.O., Degeorges, M.E., Lockhart, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. A controlled study of inhaled pentamidine for primary prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hirschel, B., Lazzarin, A., Chopard, P., Opravil, M., Furrer, H.J., Rüttimann, S., Vernazza, P., Chave, J.P., Ancarani, F., Gabriel, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Bradykinin-evoked sensitization of airway sensory nerves: a mechanism for ACE-inhibitor cough. Fox, A.J., Lalloo, U.G., Belvisi, M.G., Bernareggi, M., Chung, K.F., Barnes, P.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Differences in the distribution of gray and white matter in human cerebral hemispheres. Gur, R.C., Packer, I.K., Hungerbuhler, J.P., Reivich, M., Obrist, W.D., Amarnek, W.S., Sackeim, H.A. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  35. Interleukin-10 is a natural suppressor of cytokine production and inflammation in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Grünig, G., Corry, D.B., Leach, M.W., Seymour, B.W., Kurup, V.P., Rennick, D.M. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. A regulatory role for the C5a anaphylatoxin in type 2 immunity in asthma. Köhl, J., Baelder, R., Lewkowich, I.P., Pandey, M.K., Hawlisch, H., Wang, L., Best, J., Herman, N.S., Sproles, A.A., Zwirner, J., Whitsett, J.A., Gerard, C., Sfyroera, G., Lambris, J.D., Wills-Karp, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. A mutant epidermal growth factor receptor targeted to lung epithelium inhibits asbestos-induced proliferation and proto-oncogene expression. Manning, C.B., Cummins, A.B., Jung, M.W., Berlanger, I., Timblin, C.R., Palmer, C., Taatjes, D.J., Hemenway, D., Vacek, P., Mossman, B.T. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Persistent localization of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is epithelial cell-specific in an inhalation model of asbestosis. Cummins, A.B., Palmer, C., Mossman, B.T., Taatjes, D.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Interaction of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor with heparin inhibits proteases involved in asthma. Fath, M.A., Wu, X., Hileman, R.E., Linhardt, R.J., Kashem, M.A., Nelson, R.M., Wright, C.D., Abraham, W.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Adrenergic regulation of blood pressure in chronic renal failure. Lilley, J.J., Golden, J., Stone, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  41. Combined therapy with salbutamol and beclomethasone inhalers in chronic asthma. Clark, R.A., Anderson, P.B. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  42. Treatment of attacks in hyperkalaemic familial periodic paralysis by inhalation of salbutamol. Wang, P., Clausen, T. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  43. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose oral theophylline in atopic asthma. Sullivan, P., Bekir, S., Jaffar, Z., Page, C., Jeffery, P., Costello, J. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Evidence suggestive of diffuse brain damage following cardiac operations. Henriksen, L. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
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