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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyclic AMP mediates the direct antiproliferative action of mismatched double-stranded RNA.

Previous experiments have demonstrated that double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) can exert an antiproliferative effect on human tumor cells, independent of interferon ( IFN) induction. However, the mechanism by which dsRNAs inhibit tumor growth has not been elucidated. As a first step in determining the molecular events responsible for growth arrest, we have explored the role of signal transduction through the cAMP system in the antiproliferative effect of the mismatched dsRNA, r(I)n.r(C12,U)n (Ampligen). These studies utilized the human glioma cell line A1235, which does not produce detectable levels of IFN-alpha, -beta, or -gamma in response to mismatched dsRNA treatment. Treatment of A1235 cells with mismatched dsRNA in combination with either 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), which inhibits cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, or N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA1004), which preferentially inhibits the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, yielded an antagonism of the mismatched dsRNA-induced antiproliferative effect. Measurement of adenylate cyclase activation showed a dose-dependent increase in activity at antiproliferative mismatched dsRNA concentrations, but not at lower, nonantiproliferative doses. This increase in activity was rapid, seen as early as 30 sec after initiation of treatment, and it was sustained at peak levels for 1-2 hr. Analysis of the intracellular cAMP concentration gave similar kinetics of induction. Exposure of cells to the stable cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP yielded dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. The cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine also inhibited proliferation. In contrast, neither H-7 nor HA1004 had an effect on growth inhibition induced by human natural IFN-alpha treatment. In addition, antiproliferative doses of IFN-alpha did not increase cAMP concentrations. These results indicate that the cAMP system is utilized by mismatched dsRNA as an early signal transduction mechanism for growth control. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effects induced by mismatched dsRNA and IFN can occur by different mechanisms of action.[1]


  1. Cyclic AMP mediates the direct antiproliferative action of mismatched double-stranded RNA. Hubbell, H.R., Boyer, J.E., Roane, P., Burch, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
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