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Chemical Compound Review

Ampligen     [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-amino-2- oxo-pyrimidin...

Synonyms: Atvogen, POLYI-POLYC12U, DRG-0001, LS-174734, AC1L1Z15, ...
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Disease relevance of Ampligen


High impact information on Ampligen


Chemical compound and disease context of Ampligen


Biological context of Ampligen

  • In addition, there was a significant increase in CD4+ cell counts with respect to dose of ampligen [13].
  • The unique properties of Ampligen which support this hypothesis include activation of immune cells, inhibition of virus replication by inducing an antiviral cellular state and inhibition of growth of neoplastic cells [14].
  • Poly(rI:rC) and Ampligen were entrapped in liposomes that were covalently coupled to Protein A, permitting binding to antibodies specific for the major histocompatibility complex-encoded H2K molecule of L929 cells, or to control antibodies [15].

Anatomical context of Ampligen

  • In all cell lines, a synergistic antiproliferative effect was seen with all IFN preparations studied in combination with Ampligen, as calculated by the isobole method according to Berenbaum (1981) [16].
  • Four human tumor cell lines were studied for their response to antiproliferative effects of various interferons (IFNs) alone and in combination with the novel mismatched dsRNA, r(I)n r(C12,U)n (Ampligen) [16].
  • Preliminary in vitro data have demonstrated that a novel clinically non-toxic analogue polymer poly [I]:poly [C(12)U] (Ampligen R) can effectively induce in vitro maturation of human monocyte derived DC with sustained bioactive IL12 production [17].
  • Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activity was measured in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) treated in vitro for 3 days with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and mismatched double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) [18].
  • Dendritic cell (DC) based therapy for cervical cancer: use of DC pulsed with tumour lysate and matured with a novel synthetic clinically non-toxic double stranded RNA analogue poly [I]:poly [C(12)U] (Ampligen R) [17].

Associations of Ampligen with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ampligen


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ampligen

  • The observed efficacies of Ampligen and poly(IC) were corroborated by the observation that the drugs also markedly reduced the virus titers in the heart, as detected by (i) quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and (ii) titration for infectious virus content [3].
  • Viral load (as measured on day 7 postinfection) was significantly reduced by 80 to 100% in the serum, brain, and spleen in mice that had been treated with either interferon alpha-2b, pegylated interferon alpha-2b, poly(I. C), or Ampligen [4].
  • Detection of poly(I):poly(C12U), mismatched double-stranded RNA, by rapid solution hybridization: blood values after intravenous infusion [26].
  • In crosslinking and immunoprecipitation experiments we present evidence that 2-5A (32P-labelled 2-5A derivative, ppp(A2'p)3 A[32P]pCp) is able to bind to nuclear topoisomerase I. The mismatched dsRNA, poly(I).poly(C12U) (Ampligen), exhibited a strong anti-HIV-1 activity [27].
  • Intraperitoneal injection of IFN-alpha B/D (qd for 7 days), polyI-polyC(12)U [Ampligen (every other day for 7 days)] and topically applied imiquimod (qd for 7 days), administered from 1 day before viral challenge, were effective in protecting, respectively, 100%, 100% and 70% of BALB/c mice from mortality induced by subcutaneous injection of WNV [28].


  1. Clinical, immunological, and virological effects of ampligen, a mismatched double-stranded RNA, in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. Carter, W.A., Strayer, D.R., Brodsky, I., Lewin, M., Pellegrino, M.G., Einck, L., Henriques, H.F., Simon, G.L., Parenti, D.M., Scheib, R.G. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Mismatched double-stranded RNA (ampligen) reduces concentration of zidovudine (azidothymidine) required for in-vitro inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus. Mitchell, W.M., Montefiori, D.C., Robinson, W.E., Strayer, D.R., Carter, W.A. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis. Padalko, E., Nuyens, D., De Palma, A., Verbeken, E., Aerts, J.L., De Clercq, E., Carmeliet, P., Neyts, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Interferons, interferon inducers, and interferon-ribavirin in treatment of flavivirus-induced encephalitis in mice. Leyssen, P., Drosten, C., Paning, M., Charlier, N., Paeshuyse, J., De Clercq, E., Neyts, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Cyclic AMP mediates the direct antiproliferative action of mismatched double-stranded RNA. Hubbell, H.R., Boyer, J.E., Roane, P., Burch, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Antiproliferative and immunomodulatory actions of beta-interferon and double-stranded RNA, individually and in combination, on human bladder tumor xenografts in nude mice. Hubbell, H.R., Kvalnes-Krick, K., Carter, W.A., Strayer, D.R. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Interferon alfacon-1 protects hamsters from lethal pichinde virus infection. Gowen, B.B., Barnard, D.L., Smee, D.F., Wong, M.H., Pace, A.M., Jung, K.H., Winslow, S.G., Bailey, K.W., Blatt, L.M., Sidwell, R.W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Dose-related effects of Ampligen (poly(I).poly(C12U)), a mismatched double-stranded RNA, in a bleomycin-mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Wild, J.S., Hyde, D.M., Hubbell, H.R., Giri, S.N. Exp. Lung Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Imexon and biological response modifiers in murine models of AIDS. Chirigos, M.A., Ussery, M.A., Black, P.L. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. The use of ampligen alone and in combination with ganciclovir and coumermycin A1 for the treatment of ducks congenitally-infected with duck hepatitis B virus. Niu, J., Wang, Y., Dixon, R., Bowden, S., Qiao, M., Einck, L., Locarnini, S. Antiviral Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of lethal Pichinde virus infections in weanling LVG/Lak hamsters with ribavirin, ribamidine, selenazofurin, and ampligen. Smee, D.F., Gilbert, J., Leonhardt, J.A., Barnett, B.B., Huggins, J.H., Sidwell, R.W. Antiviral Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Mismatched dsRNA (ampligen) induces protection against genomic variants of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a multiplicity of target cells. Montefiori, D.C., Robinson, W.E., Mitchell, W.M. Antiviral Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. A phase I study of ampligen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Armstrong, J.A., McMahon, D., Huang, X.L., Pazin, G.J., Gupta, P., Rinaldo, C.R., Schoenfeld, D.A., Gaccione, P., Tripoli, C.A., Bensasi, S. J. Infect. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. An hypothesis concerning optimal therapy in HIV disease. Gillespie, D., Carter, W.A. Med. Hypotheses (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Free and liposome-encapsulated double-stranded RNAs as inducers of interferon, interleukin-6, and cellular toxicity. Milhaud, P.G., Machy, P., Colote, S., Lebleu, B., Leserman, L. J. Interferon Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Synergistic antiproliferative effect of human interferons in combination with mismatched double-stranded RNA on human tumor cells. Hubbell, H.R. Int. J. Cancer (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Dendritic cell (DC) based therapy for cervical cancer: use of DC pulsed with tumour lysate and matured with a novel synthetic clinically non-toxic double stranded RNA analogue poly [I]:poly [C(12)U] (Ampligen R). Adams, M., Navabi, H., Jasani, B., Man, S., Fiander, A., Evans, A.S., Donninger, C., Mason, M. Vaccine (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Potentiated lymphokine-activated killer cell activity generated by low-dose interleukin-2 and mismatched double-stranded RNA. Hubbell, H.R., Gibson, G.D., Bigler, R.D. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. In vivo studies with phosphorothioate oligonucleotides: pharmacokinetics prologue. Iversen, P. Anticancer Drug Des. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. A misaligned double-stranded RNA, poly(I).poly(C12,U), induces accumulation of 2',5'-oligoadenylates in mouse tissues. Hearl, W.G., Johnston, M.I. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of combinations of ampligen and zidovudine or dideoxyinosine against human immunodeficiency viruses in vitro. O'Marro, S.D., Armstrong, J.A., Asuncion, C., Gueverra, L., Ho, M. Antiviral Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Preparation of human ovarian cancer ascites-derived exosomes for a clinical trial. Navabi, H., Croston, D., Hobot, J., Clayton, A., Zitvogel, L., Jasani, B., Bailey-Wood, R., Wilson, K., Tabi, Z., Mason, M.D., Adams, M. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Sensitivities of human glioma cell lines to interferons and double-stranded RNAs individually and in synergistic combinations. Dick, R.S., Hubbell, H.R. J. Neurooncol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Mismatched double-stranded RNA, Ampligen (poly(I): poly(C12U), demonstrates antiviral and immunostimulatory activities in HIV disease. Carter, W.A., Ventura, D., Shapiro, D.E., Strayer, D.R., Gillespie, D.H., Hubbell, H.R. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of murine Caraparu Bunyavirus liver infection and immunomodulator-mediated antiviral protection. Brinton, M.A., Gavin, E.I., Lo, W.K., Pinto, A.J., Morahan, P.S. Antiviral Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Detection of poly(I):poly(C12U), mismatched double-stranded RNA, by rapid solution hybridization: blood values after intravenous infusion. Strauss, K.I., Strayer, D.R., Gillespie, D.H. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I activity by 2',5'-oligoadenylates and mismatched double-stranded RNA in uninfected and HIV-1-infected H9 cells. Schröder, H.C., Kelve, M., Schäcke, H., Pfleiderer, W., Charubala, R., Suhadolnik, R.J., Müller, W.E. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of interferon-alpha and interferon-inducers on West Nile virus in mouse and hamster animal models. Morrey, J.D., Day, C.W., Julander, J.G., Blatt, L.M., Smee, D.F., Sidwell, R.W. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
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